Section: User commands (1)
dvipng - A DVI-to-PNG translator
dvipng [options] filename
dvipng [options] [filename] -
This program makes PNG
graphics from DVI
files as obtained
from TeX and its relatives.
If GIF support is enabled, GIF output is chosen by using the
dvigif binary or with the --gif option.
The benefits of dvipng/dvigif include
Speed. It is a very fast bitmap-rendering code for DVI files, which
makes it suitable for generating large amounts of images on-the-fly,
as needed in preview-latex, WeBWorK and others.
It does not read the postamble, so it can be started before TeX
finishes. There is a --follow switch that makes dvipng wait at
end-of-file for further output, unless it finds the POST marker that
indicates the end of the DVI.
Interactive query of options. dvipng can read options interactively
through stdin, and all options are usable. It is even possible to change
the input file through this interface.
Supports PK, VF, PostScript Type1, and TrueType fonts, subfonts (i.e.,
as used in CJK-LaTeX), color specials, and inclusion of PostScript,
PNG, JPEG or GIF images.
Many of the parameterless options listed here can be turned off by
suffixing the option with a zero (0
); for instance, to turn off
page reversal, use -r0
. Such options are marked with a trailing
Read additional options from standard input after processing the command
Print a usage message and exit.
Print the version number and exit.
- -bd num
- -bd color_spec
- -bd 'num color_spec'
Set the pixel width of the transparent border (default 0). Using this
option will make the image edges transparent, but it only affects pixels
with the background color. Giving a color_spec will set the
fallback color, to be used in viewers that cannot handle transparency
(the default is the background color). The color spec should be in
TeX color \special syntax, e.g., 'rgb 1.0 0.0 0.0'. Setting the
fallback color makes the default border width 1 px.
- --bdpi num
This option only has an effect when using bitmapped (PK) fonts. The
option sets the base (Metafont) resolution, both horizontal and
vertical, to num dpi (dots per inch). This option is necessary
when manually selecting Metafont mode with the --mode option (see
- -bg color_spec
Choose background color for the images. This option will be ignored if
there is a background color \special in the DVI. The color spec should
be in TeX color \special syntax, e.g., 'rgb 1.0 0.0 0.0'. You can
also specify 'Transparent' or 'transparent' which will give you a
transparent background with the normal background as a fallback color. A
capitalized 'Transparent' will give a full-alpha transparency, while an
all-lowercase 'transparent' will give a simple fully transparent
background with non-transparent antialiased pixels. The latter would be
suitable for viewers who cannot cope with a true alpha channel. GIF
images do not support full alpha transparency, so in case of GIF output,
both variants will use the latter behaviour.
- -d num
Set the debug flags, showing what dvipng (thinks it) is doing. This will
work unless dvipng has been compiled without the "DEBUG" option
(not recommended). Set the flags as you need them, use -d -1 as
the first option for maximum output.
- -D num
Set the output resolution, both horizontal and vertical, to num
dpi (dots per inch).
One may want to adjust this to fit a certain text font size (e.g., on
a web page), and for a text font height of font_px pixels (in
Mozilla) the correct formula is
<dpi> = <font_px> * 72.27 / 10 [px * TeXpt/in / TeXpt]
The last division by ten is due to the standard font height 10pt in
your document, if you use 12pt, divide by 12. Unfortunately, some
proprietary browsers have font height in pt (points), not pixels. You
have to rescale that to pixels, using the screen resolution (default
is usually 96 dpi) which means the formula is
<font_px> = <font_pt> * 96 / 72 [pt * px/in / (pt/in)]
On some high-res screens, the value is instead 120 dpi. Good luck!
Report the depth of the image. This only works reliably when the
LaTeX style preview.sty from preview-latex is used with
the active option. It reports the number of pixels from the
bottom of the image to the baseline of the image. This can be used for
vertical positioning of the image in, e.g., web documents, where one
would use (Cascading StyleSheets 1)
<IMG SRC="<filename.png>" STYLE="vertical-align: -<depth>px">
The depth is a negative offset in this case, so the minus sign is
necessary, and the unit is pixels (px).
Set this option to make the output page number be the TeX page
numbers rather than the physical page number. See the -o switch.
- -fg color_spec
Choose foreground color for the images. This option will be ignored if
there is a foreground color \special in the DVI. The color spec should
be in TeX color \special syntax, e.g., 'rgb 1.0 0.0 0.0'.
Wait for data at end-of-file. One of the benefits of dvipng is that it
does not read the postamble, so it can be started before TeX
finishes. This switch makes dvipng wait at end-of-file for further
output, unless it finds the POST marker that indicates the end of the
DVI. This is similar to tail -f but for DVI-to-PNG conversion.
Enable/disable FreeType font rendering (default on). This option is
available if the FreeType2 font library was present at compilation time.
If this is the case, dvipng will have direct support for PostScript
Type1 and TrueType fonts internally, rather than using gsftopk
for rendering the fonts. If you have PostScript versions of Computer
Modern installed, there will be no need to generate bitmapped (PK)
variants on disk of these. Then, you can render images at different (and
unusual) resolutions without cluttering the disk with lots of bitmapped
One reason to disable FreeType font rendering would be to generate
identical output on different platforms, since FreeType uses the native
renderer and therefore can give slightly different output on each platform.
- --gamma num
Control the interpolation of colors in the greyscale anti-aliasing
color palette. Default value is 1.0. For 0 < num < 1, the
fonts will be lighter (more like the background), and for num >
1, the fonts will be darker (more like the foreground).
The images are output in the GIF format, if GIF support is enabled.
This is the default for the dvigif binary, which only will be
available when GIF support is enabled. GIF images are palette images
(see the --palette option) and does not support true alpha
channels (see the --bg option). See also the --png
Report the height of the image. This only works reliably when the
LaTeX style preview.sty from preview-latex is used with
the active option. It reports the number of pixels from the top
of the image to the baseline of the image. The total height of the
image is obtained as the sum of the values reported from
--height and --depth.
- -l [=]num
The last page printed will be the first one numbered num. Default
is the last page in the document. If num is prefixed by an equals
sign, then it (and the argument to the -p option, if specified)
is treated as a physical (absolute) page number, rather than a value to
compare with the TeX \count0 values stored in the DVI file.
Thus, using -l =9 will end with the ninth page of the document,
no matter what the pages are actually numbered.
- --mode mode
This option only has an effect when using bitmapped (PK) fonts. Use
mode as the Metafont device name for the PK fonts (both for path
searching and font generation). This needs to be augmented with the base
device resolution, given with the --bdpi option. See the file
<ftp://ftp.tug.org/tex/modes.mf> for a list of resolutions and mode
names for most devices.
This option only has an effect when using bitmapped (PK) fonts. It turns
off automatic PK font generation (mktexpk).
This switch prohibits the internal call to GhostScript for displaying
PostScript specials. --nogs0 turns the call back on.
Normally, if GhostScript is used to render PostScript specials, the
GhostScript interpreter is run with the option -dSAFER. The
--nogssafer option runs GhostScript without -dSAFER. The
-dSAFER option in Ghostscript disables PostScript operators such
as deletefile, to prevent possibly malicious PostScript programs from
having any effect.
Some packages generate raw PostScript specials, even non-rendering such
specials. This switch turns off the internal call to GhostScript
intended to display these raw PostScript specials. --norawps0
turns the call back on.
- -o name
Send output to the file name. A single occurrence of %d or
%01d, ..., %09d will be exchanged for the physical
page number (this can be changed, see the --dvinum switch). The
default output filename is file%d.png where the input DVI
file was file.dvi.
- -O x-offset,y-offset
Move the origin by x-offset,y-offset, a comma-separated
pair of dimensions such as .1in,-.3cm.
The origin of the page is shifted from the default position
(of one inch down, one inch to the right from the upper left corner of
the paper) by this amount.
- -p [=]num
The first page printed will be the first one numbered num. Default
is the first page in the document. If num is prefixed by an
equals sign, then it (and the argument to the -l option, if
specified) is treated as a physical (absolute) page number, rather than
a value to compare with the TeX \count0 values stored in the
DVI file. Thus, using -p =3 will start with the third page of
the document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.
When an external image is included, dvipng will automatically
switch to truecolor mode, to avoid unnecessary delay and quality
reduction, and enable the EPS translator to draw on a transparent
background and outside of the boundingbox. This switch will force
palette (256-color) output and make dvipng revert to opaque
clipped image inclusion. This will also override the --truecolor
switch if present.
No images are output when a warning occurs. Normally, dvipng will
output an image in spite of a warning, but there may be something
missing in this image. One reason to use this option would be if you
have a more complete but slower fallback converter. Mainly, this is
useful for failed figure inclusion and unknown \special occurrences,
but warnings will also occur for missing or unknown color specs and
missing PK fonts.
The images are output in the PNG format. This is the default for the
dvipng binary. See also the --gif option.
- -pp firstpage-lastpage
Print pages firstpage through lastpage; but not quite
equivalent to -p firstpage -l lastpage. For example,
when rendering a book, there may be several instances of a page in the
DVI file (one in "\frontmatter", one in "\mainmatter", and one
in "\backmatter"). In case of several pages matching, -pp
firstpage-lastpage will render all pages that
matches the specified range, while -p firstpage -l
lastpage will render the pages from the first occurrence
of firstpage to the first occurrence of lastpage.
This is the (undocumented) behaviour of dvips. In dvipng you can give
both kinds of options, in which case you get all pages that matches the
range in -pp between the pages from -p to -l. Also
multiple -pp options accumulate, unlike -p and -l.
The - separator can also be :. Note that -pp -1
will be interpreted as ``all pages up to and including 1'', if you want a
page numbered -1 (only the table of contents, say) put -pp -1--1,
or more readable, -pp -1:-1.
Run quietly. Don't chatter about pages converted, etc. to standard
output; report no warnings (only errors) to standard error.
- -Q num
Set the quality to num. That is, choose the number of antialiasing
levels for bitmapped fonts (PK), to be
num*num+1. The default value is 4 which gives 17 levels of
antialiasing for antialiased fonts from these two. If FreeType is
available, its rendering is unaffected by this option.
Toggle output of pages in reverse/forward order. By default, the first
page in the DVI is output first.
The program exits when a warning occurs. Normally, dvipng will output
an image in spite of a warning, but there may be something missing in
this image. One reason to use this option would be if you have a more
complete but slower fallback converter. See the --picky option
above for a list of when warnings occur.
- -T image_size
Set the image size to image_size which can be either of
bbox, tight, or a comma-separated pair of dimensions
hsize,vsize such as .1in,.3cm. The default is
bbox which produces a PNG that includes all ink put on the page
and in addition the DVI origin, located 1in from the top and 1in from
the left edge of the paper. This usually gives whitespace above and to
the left in the produced image. The value tight will make dvipng
only include all ink put on the page, producing neat images.
This will make dvipng generate truecolor output. Note that
truecolor output is automatic if you include an external image in your
DVI, e.g., via a PostScript special (i.e., the graphics or
graphicx package). This switch is overridden by the
Enable verbose operation. This will currently indicate what fonts is
used, in addition to the usual output.
Report the width of the image. See also --height and
- -x num
This option is deprecated; it should not be used. It is much better to
select the output resolution directly with the -D option. This
option sets the magnification ratio to num/1000 and
overrides the magnification specified in the DVI file. Must be between
10 and 100000. It is recommended that you use standard magstep values
(1095, 1200, 1440, 1728, 2074, 2488, 2986, and so on) to help reduce the
total number of PK files generated. num may be a real number, not
an integer, for increased precision.
- -z num
Set the PNG compression level to num. This option is enabled if
your libgd is new enough. The default compression level is 1,
which selects maximum speed at the price of slightly larger PNGs. For an
older libgd, the hard-soldered value 5 is used. The include file
``Currently, valid values range from 0 - 9, corresponding directly to
the zlib compression levels 0 - 9 (0 - no compression, 9 - ''maximal``
compression). Note that tests have shown that zlib compression levels
3-6 usually perform as well as level 9 for PNG images, and do
considerably fewer calculations. In the future, these values may not
correspond directly to the zlib compression levels.''
The full manual is accessible in info format, on most systems by typing
This program is released under the GNU
Lesser General Public License
version 3, see the COPYING
file in the dvipng distribution or
Copyright (c) 2002-2015, 2019 Jan-AAke Larsson