Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: October 2013
last, lastb - show a listing of last logged in users
searches back through the
file (or the file designated by the
option) and displays a list of all users logged in (and out) since that
file was created. One or more
can be given, in which case
will show only the entries matching those arguments. Names of
can be abbreviated, thus
is the same as
When catching a SIGINT signal (generated by the interrupt key, usually
control-C) or a SIGQUIT signal,
will show how far it has searched through the file; in the case of the
will then terminate.
The pseudo user
logs in each time the system is rebooted. Thus
will show a log of all the reboots since the log file was created.
is the same as
except that by default it shows a log of the
file, which contains all the bad login attempts.
- -a, --hostlast
Display the hostname in the last column. Useful in combination with the
- -d, --dns
For non-local logins, Linux stores not only the host name of the remote
host, but its IP number as well. This option translates the IP number
back into a hostname.
- -f, --file file
to use a specific file instead of
option can be given multiple times, and all of the specified files will be
- -F, --fulltimes
Print full login and logout times and dates.
- -i, --ip
but displays the host's IP number instead of the name.
-n, --limit number
how many lines to show.
- -p, --present time
Display the users who were present at the specified time. This is
like using the options
--since and --until
together with the same time.
- -R, --nohostname
Suppresses the display of the hostname field.
- -s, --since time
Display the state of logins since the specified
This is useful, e.g., to easily determine who was logged in at a
particular time. The option is often combined with
- -t, --until time
Display the state of logins until the specified
- --time-format format
Define the output timestamp
to be one of
variant will not print any timestamps at all,
is the default, and
is the same as the
variant will display the timestamp in ISO-8601 format. The ISO format
contains timezone information, making it preferable when printouts are
investigated outside of the system.
- -w, --fullnames
Display full user names and domain names in the output.
- -x, --system
Display the system shutdown entries and run level changes.
The options that take the
argument understand the following formats:
|YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss |
|YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm ||(seconds will be set to 00)|
|YYYY-MM-DD ||(time will be set to 00:00:00)|
|hh:mm:ss ||(date will be set to today)|
|hh:mm ||(date will be set to today, seconds to 00)|
|yesterday ||(time is set to 00:00:00)|
|today ||(time is set to 00:00:00)|
|tomorrow ||(time is set to 00:00:00)|
might not be found. The system only logs information in these files if
they are present. This is a local configuration issue. If you want the
files to be used, they can be created with a simple
command (for example,
Miquel van Smoorenburg
The last command is part of the util-linux package and is available from
Linux Kernel Archive