Section: POSIX Programmer's Manual (1P)
This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.
The Linux implementation of this interface may differ (consult
the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior),
or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.
--- system-to-system copy
uucp [-cCdfjmr] [-n user] source-file... destination-file
utility shall copy files named by the
argument to the
argument. The files named can be on local or remote systems.
utility cannot guarantee support for all character encodings in all
circumstances. For example, transmission data may be restricted to 7
bits by the underlying network, 8-bit data and filenames need not be
portable to non-internationalized systems, and so on. Under these
circumstances, it is recommended that only characters defined in the
ISO/IEC 646:1991 standard International Reference Version (equivalent to ASCII) 7-bit range
of characters be used, and that only characters defined in the portable
filename character set be used for naming files. The protocol for
transfer of files is unspecified by POSIX.1-2008.
Typical implementations of this utility require a communications line
configured to use the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1-2008,
Chapter 11, General Terminal Interface,
but other communications means may be used. On systems where there are
no available communications means (either temporarily or permanently),
this utility shall write an error message describing the problem and
exit with a non-zero exit status.
utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1-2008,
, Utility Syntax Guidelines.
The following options shall be supported:
Do not copy local file to the spool directory for transfer to the
remote machine (default).
Force the copy of local files to the spool directory for transfer.
Make all necessary directories for the file copy (default).
Do not make intermediate directories for the file copy.
Write the job identification string to standard output. This job
identification can be used by
to obtain the status or terminate a job.
Send mail to the requester when the copy is completed.
- -n user
on the remote system that a file was sent.
Do not start the file transfer; just queue the job.
The following operands shall be supported:
- destination-file, source-file
A pathname of a file to be copied to, or from, respectively. Either
name can be a pathname on the local machine, or can have the form:
is taken from a list of system names that
can also be a list of names such as:
in which case, an attempt is made to send the file via the specified
route to the destination. Care should be taken to ensure that
intermediate nodes in the route are willing to forward information.
The shell pattern matching notation characters
shall be expanded on the appropriate system.
Pathnames can be one of:
An absolute pathname.
A pathname preceded by ~user
is a login name on the specified system and is replaced by that user's
login directory. Note that if an invalid login is specified, the
default is to the public directory (called
the actual location of
A pathname preceded by ~/destination
is appended to
This destination is treated as a filename unless more than one file is
being transferred by this request or the destination is already a
directory. To ensure that it is a directory, follow the destination
as the destination makes the directory
if it does not exist and puts the requested files in that directory.
Anything else shall be prefixed by the current directory.
If the result is an erroneous pathname for the remote system, the copy
shall fail. If the
is a directory, the last part of the
name shall be used.
The read, write, and execute permissions given by
The files to be copied are regular files.
The following environment variables shall affect the execution of
Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are
unset or null. (See the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1-2008,
Section 8.2, Internationalization Variables
for the precedence of internationalization variables used to determine
the values of locale categories.)
If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the
other internationalization variables.
Determine the locale for the behavior of ranges, equivalence classes,
and multi-character collating elements within bracketed filename
Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of
text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to
multi-byte characters in arguments and input files) and the behavior of
character classes within bracketed filename patterns (for example,
Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and
contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error, and
informative messages written to standard output.
Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of
The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.
The output files (which may be on other systems) are copies of the
is used, mail files are modified.
The following exit values shall be returned:
An error occurred.
CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
The following sections are informative.
This utility is part of the UUCP Utilities option and need not be
supported by all implementations.
The domain of remotely accessible files can (and for obvious security
reasons usually should) be severely restricted.
Note that the
character in addresses has to be escaped when using
as a command interpreter because of its history substitution syntax.
the escape is not necessary, but may be used.
As noted above, shell metacharacters appearing in pathnames are
expanded on the appropriate system. On an internationalized system,
this is done under the control of local settings of
Thus, care should be taken when using bracketed filename patterns, as
collation and typing rules may vary from one system to another. Also
be aware that certain types of expression (that is, equivalence
classes, character classes, and collating symbols) need not be
supported on non-internationalized systems.
The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1-2008,
Chapter 8, Environment Variables,
Chapter 11, General Terminal Interface,
Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines
Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
-- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base
Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group.
(This is POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1 applied.) In the
event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard
is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at
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