#include <math.h> double exp(double x); float expf(float x); long double expl(long double x);
These functions shall compute the base-e exponential of x.
An application wishing to check for error situations should set errno to zero and call feclearexcept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before calling these functions. On return, if errno is non-zero or fetestexcept(FE_INVALID | FE_DIVBYZERO | FE_OVERFLOW | FE_UNDERFLOW) is non-zero, an error has occurred.
If the correct value would cause overflow, a range error shall occur and exp(), expf(), and expl() shall return the value of the macro HUGE_VAL, HUGE_VALF, and HUGE_VALL, respectively.
If the correct value would cause underflow, and is not representable, a range error may occur, and exp(), expf(), and expl() shall return 0.0, or (if the IEC 60559 Floating-Point option is not supported) an implementation-defined value no greater in magnitude than DBL_MIN, FLT_MIN, and LDBL_MIN, respectively.
If x is NaN, a NaN shall be returned.
If x is ±0, 1 shall be returned.
If x is -Inf, +0 shall be returned.
If x is +Inf, x shall be returned.
If the correct value would cause underflow, and is representable, a range error may occur and the correct value shall be returned.
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the overflow floating-point exception shall be raised.
These functions may fail if:
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the underflow floating-point exception shall be raised.
The following sections are informative.
This function shows an implementation for the density of the standard normal distribution using exp(). This example uses the constant M_PI which is part of the XSI option.
#include <math.h> double normal_density (double x) { return exp(-x*x/2) / sqrt (2*M_PI); }
On error, the expressions (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) and (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) are independent of each other, but at least one of them must be non-zero.
The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1-2008, Section 4.19, Treatment of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions, <math.h>
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