Section: POSIX Programmer's Manual (3P)
This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.
The Linux implementation of this interface may differ (consult
the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior),
or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.
--- square root function
double sqrt(double x);
float sqrtf(float x);
long double sqrtl(long double x);
The functionality described on this reference page is aligned with the
ISO C standard. Any conflict between the requirements described here and the
ISO C standard is unintentional. This volume of POSIX.1-2008 defers to the ISO C standard.
These functions shall compute the square root of their argument
An application wishing to check for error situations should set
to zero and call
before calling these functions. On return, if
is non-zero or fetestexcept(FE_INVALID | FE_DIVBYZERO |
FE_OVERFLOW | FE_UNDERFLOW) is non-zero, an error has occurred.
Upon successful completion, these functions shall return the square
For finite values of
< -0, a domain error shall occur, and
either a NaN (if supported), or
an implementation-defined value shall be returned.
is NaN, a NaN shall be returned.
is ±0 or +Inf,
shall be returned.
is -Inf, a domain error shall occur, and a NaN shall be returned.
These functions shall fail if:
- Domain Error
The finite value of
is < -0,
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is
shall be set to
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is
non-zero, then the invalid floating-point exception shall be raised.
The following sections are informative.
Taking the Square Root of 9.0
double x = 9.0;
result = sqrt(x);
On error, the expressions (math_errhandling
& MATH_ERRNO) and
& MATH_ERREXCEPT) are independent of each
other, but at least one of them must be non-zero.
The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1-2008,
Section 4.19, Treatment of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions,
Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
-- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base
Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group.
(This is POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1 applied.) In the
event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard
is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at
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