Alien::Build

Section: User Contributed Perl Documentation (3)
Updated: 2019-04-22
Page Index
 

NAME

Alien::Build - Build external dependencies for use in CPAN  

VERSION

version 1.67  

SYNOPSIS

 my $build = Alien::Build->load('./alienfile');
 $build->load_requires('configure');
 $build->set_prefix('/usr/local');
 $build->set_stage('/foo/mystage');  # needs to be absolute
 $build->load_requires($build->install_type);
 $build->download;
 $build->build;
 # files are now in /foo/mystage, it is your job (or
 # ExtUtils::MakeMaker, Module::Build, etc) to copy
 # those files into /usr/local

 

DESCRIPTION

This module provides tools for building external (non-CPAN) dependencies for CPAN. It is mainly designed to be used at install time of a CPAN client, and work closely with Alien::Base which is used at runtime.

This is the detailed documentation for the Alien::Build class. If you are starting out you probably want to do so from one of these documents:

Alien::Build::Manual::Alien
A broad overview of "Alien-Build" and its ecosystem.
Alien::Build::Manual::AlienUser
For users of an "Alien::libfoo" that is implemented using Alien::Base. (The developer of "Alien::libfoo" should provide the documentation necessary, but if not, this is the place to start).
Alien::Build::Manual::AlienAuthor
If you are writing your own Alien based on Alien::Build and Alien::Base.
Alien::Build::Manual::FAQ
If you have a common question that has already been answered, like "How do I use alienfile with some build system".
Alien::Build::Manual::PluginAuthor
This is for the brave souls who want to write plugins that will work with Alien::Build + alienfile.

Note that you will not usually create a Alien::Build instance directly, but rather be using a thin installer layer, such as Alien::Build::MM (for use with ExtUtils::MakeMaker) or Alien::Build::MB (for use with Module::Build). One of the goals of this project is to remain installer agnostic.  

CONSTRUCTORS

 

new

 my $build = Alien::Build->new;

This creates a new empty instance of Alien::Build. Normally you will want to use "load" below to create an instance of Alien::Build from an alienfile recipe.  

load

 my $build = Alien::Build->load($alienfile);

This creates an Alien::Build instance with the given alienfile recipe.  

resume

 my $build = Alien::Build->resume($alienfile, $root);

Load a checkpointed Alien::Build instance. You will need the original alienfile and the build root (usually "_alien"), and a build that had been properly checkpointed using the "checkpoint" method below.  

PROPERTIES

There are three main properties for Alien::Build. There are a number of properties documented here with a specific usage. Note that these properties may need to be serialized into something primitive like JSON that does not support: regular expressions, code references of blessed objects.

If you are writing a plugin (Alien::Build::Plugin) you should use a prefix like "plugin_name" (where name is the name of your plugin) so that it does not interfere with other plugin or future versions of Alien::Build. For example, if you were writing "Alien::Build::Plugin::Fetch::NewProtocol", please use the prefix "plugin_fetch_newprotocol":

 sub init
 {
   my($self, $meta) = @_;
 
   $meta->prop( plugin_fetch_newprotocol_foo => 'some value' );
  
   $meta->register_hook(
     some_hook => sub {
       my($build) = @_;
       $build->install_prop->{plugin_fetch_newprotocol_bar} = 'some other value';
       $build->runtime_prop->{plugin_fetch_newprotocol_baz} = 'and another value';
     }
   );
 }

If you are writing a alienfile recipe please use the prefix "my_":

 use alienfile;
 
 meta_prop->{my_foo} = 'some value';
 
 probe sub {
   my($build) = @_;
   $build->install_prop->{my_bar} = 'some other value';
   $build->install_prop->{my_baz} = 'and another value';
 };

Any property may be used from a command:

 probe [ 'some command %{.meta.plugin_fetch_newprotocol_foo}' ];
 probe [ 'some command %{.install.plugin_fetch_newprotocol_bar}' ];
 probe [ 'some command %{.runtime.plugin_fetch_newprotocol_baz}' ];
 probe [ 'some command %{.meta.my_foo}' ];
 probe [ 'some command %{.install.my_bar}' ];
 probe [ 'some command %{.runtime.my_baz}' ];

 

meta_prop

 my $href = $build->meta_prop;
 my $href = Alien::Build->meta_prop;

Meta properties have to do with the recipe itself, and not any particular instance that probes or builds that recipe. Meta properties can be changed from within an alienfile using the "meta_prop" directive, or from a plugin from its "init" method (though should NOT be modified from any hooks registered within that "init" method). This is not strictly enforced, but if you do not follow this rule your recipe will likely be broken.

arch
This is a hint to an installer like Alien::Build::MM or Alien::Build::MB, that the library or tool contains architecture dependent files and so should be stored in an architecture dependent location. If not specified by your alienfile then it will be set to true.
destdir
Use the "DESTDIR" environment variable to stage your install before copying the files into "blib". This is the preferred method of installing libraries because it improves reliability. This technique is supported by "autoconf" and others.
destdir_filter
Regular expression for the files that should be copied from the "DESTDIR" into the stage directory. If not defined, then all files will be copied.
destdir_ffi_filter
Same as "destdir_filter" except applies to "build_ffi" instead of "build".
env
Environment variables to override during the build stage.
env_interpolate
Environment variable values will be interpolated with helpers. Example:

 meta->prop->{env_interpolate} = 1;
 meta->prop->{env}->{PERL} = '%{perl}';

local_source
Set to true if source code package is available locally. (that is not fetched over the internet). This is computed by default based on the "start_url" property. Can be set by an alienfile or plugin.
platform
Hash reference. Contains information about the platform beyond just $^O.
compiler_type
Refers to the type of flags that the compiler accepts. May be expanded in the future, but for now, will be one of:
microsoft
On Windows when using Microsoft Visual C++
unix
Virtually everything else, including gcc on windows.

The main difference is that with Visual C++ "-LIBPATH" should be used instead of "-L", and static libraries should have the ".LIB" suffix instead of ".a".

system_type
$^O is frequently good enough to make platform specific logic in your alienfile, this handles the case when $^O can cover platforms that provide multiple environments that Perl might run under. The main example is windows, but others may be added in the future.
unix
vms
windows-activestate
windows-microsoft
windows-mingw
windows-strawberry
windows-unknown

Note that "cygwin" and "msys" are considered "unix" even though they run on windows!

out_of_source
Build in a different directory from the where the source code is stored. In autoconf this is referred to as a ``VPATH'' build. Everyone else calls this an ``out-of-source'' build. When this property is true, instead of extracting to the source build root, the downloaded source will be extracted to an source extraction directory and the source build root will be empty. You can use the "extract" install property to get the location of the extracted source.
network
True if a network fetch is available. This should NOT be set by an alienfile or plugin. This is computed based on the "ALIEN_INSTALL_NETWORK" environment variables.
start_url
The default or start URL used by fetch plugins.
 

install_prop

 my $href = $build->install_prop;

Install properties are used during the install phase (either under "share" or "system" install). They are remembered for the entire install phase, but not kept around during the runtime phase. Thus they cannot be accessed from your Alien::Base based module.

autoconf_prefix
The prefix as understood by autoconf. This is only different on Windows Where MSYS is used and paths like "C:/foo" are represented as "/C/foo" which are understood by the MSYS tools, but not by Perl. You should only use this if you are using Alien::Build::Plugin::Autoconf in your alienfile.
download
The location of the downloaded archive (tar.gz, or similar) or directory.
env
Environment variables to override during the build stage.
extract
The location of the last source extraction. For a ``out-of-source'' build (see the "out_of_source" meta property above), this will only be set once. For other types of builds, the source code may be extracted multiple times, and thus this property may change.
old
Hash containing information on a previously installed Alien of the same name, if available. This may be useful in cases where you want to reuse the previous install if it is still sufficient.
prefix
The prefix for the previous install. Versions prior to 1.42 unfortunately had this in typo form of "preifx".
runtime
The runtime properties from the previous install.
patch
Directory with patches.
prefix
The install time prefix. Under a "destdir" install this is the same as the runtime or final install location. Under a non-"destdir" install this is the "stage" directory (usually the appropriate share directory under "blib").
root
The build root directory. This will be an absolute path. It is the absolute form of "./_alien" by default.
stage
The stage directory where files will be copied. This is usually the root of the blib share directory.
 

runtime_prop

 my $href = $build->runtime_prop;

Runtime properties are used during the install and runtime phases (either under "share" or "system" install). This should include anything that you will need to know to use the library or tool during runtime, and shouldn't include anything that is no longer relevant once the install process is complete.

alien_build_version
The version of Alien::Build used to install the library or tool.
alt
Alternate configurations. If the alienized package has multiple libraries this could be used to store the different compiler or linker flags for each library.
cflags
The compiler flags
cflags_static
The static compiler flags
command
The command name for tools where the name my differ from platform to platform. For example, the GNU version of make is usually "make" in Linux and "gmake" on FreeBSD.
ffi_name
The name DLL or shared object ``name'' to use when searching for dynamic libraries at runtime. This is passed into FFI::CheckLib, so if your library is something like "libarchive.so" or "archive.dll" you would set this to "archive". This may be a string or an array of strings.
install_type
The install type. Is one of:
system
For when the library or tool is provided by the operating system, can be detected by Alien::Build, and is considered satisfactory by the "alienfile" recipe.
share
For when a system install is not possible, the library source will be downloaded from the internet or retrieved in another appropriate fashion and built.
libs
The library flags
libs_static
The static library flags
perl_module_version
The version of the Perl module used to install the alien (if available). For example if Alien::curl is installing "libcurl" this would be the version of Alien::curl used during the install step.
prefix
The final install root. This is usually they share directory.
version
The version of the library or tool
 

hook_prop

 my $href = $build->hook_prop;

Hook properties are for the currently running (if any) hook. They are used only during the execution of each hook and are discarded after. If no hook is currently running then "hook_prop" will return "undef".

name
The name of the currently running hook.
version (probe)
Probe and PkgConfig plugins may set this property indicating the version of the alienized package. Not all plugins and configurations may be able to provide this.
 

METHODS

 

checkpoint

 $build->checkpoint;

Save any install or runtime properties so that they can be reloaded on a subsequent run in a separate process. This is useful if your build needs to be done in multiple stages from a "Makefile", such as with ExtUtils::MakeMaker. Once checkpointed you can use the "resume" constructor (documented above) to resume the probe/build/install] process.  

root

 my $dir = $build->root;

This is just a shortcut for:

 my $root = $build->install_prop->{root};

Except that it will be created if it does not already exist.  

install_type

 my $type = $build->install_type;

This will return the install type. (See the like named install property above for details). This method will call "probe" if it has not already been called.  

set_prefix

 $build->set_prefix($prefix);

Set the final (unstaged) prefix. This is normally only called by Alien::Build::MM and similar modules. It is not intended for use from plugins or from an alienfile.  

set_stage

 $build->set_stage($dir);

Sets the stage directory. This is normally only called by Alien::Build::MM and similar modules. It is not intended for use from plugins or from an alienfile.  

requires

 my $hash = $build->requires($phase);

Returns a hash reference of the modules required for the given phase. Phases include:

configure
These modules must already be available when the alienfile is read.
any
These modules are used during either a "system" or "share" install.
share
These modules are used during the build phase of a "share" install.
system
These modules are used during the build phase of a "system" install.
 

load_requires

 $build->load_requires($phase);

This loads the appropriate modules for the given phase (see "requires" above for a description of the phases).  

probe

 my $install_type = $build->probe;

Attempts to determine if the operating system has the library or tool already installed. If so, then the string "system" will be returned and a system install will be performed. If not, then the string "share" will be installed and the tool or library will be downloaded and built from source.

If the environment variable "ALIEN_INSTALL_TYPE" is set, then that will force a specific type of install. If the detection logic cannot accommodate the install type requested then it will fail with an exception.  

download

 $build->download;

Download the source, usually as a tarball, usually from the internet.

Under a "system" install this does not do anything.  

fetch

 my $res = $build->fetch;
 my $res = $build->fetch($url);

Fetch a resource using the fetch hook. Returns the same hash structure described below in the hook documentation.  

decode

 my $decoded_res = $build->decode($res);

Decode the HTML or file listing returned by "fetch". Returns the same hash structure described below in the hook documentation.  

prefer

 my $sorted_res = $build->prefer($res);

Filter and sort candidates. The preferred candidate will be returned first in the list. The worst candidate will be returned last. Returns the same hash structure described below in the hook documentation.  

extract

 my $dir = $build->extract;
 my $dir = $build->extract($archive);

Extracts the given archive into a fresh directory. This is normally called internally to Alien::Build, and for normal usage is not needed from a plugin or alienfile.  

build

 $build->build;

Run the build step. It is expected that "probe" and "download" have already been performed. What it actually does depends on the type of install:

share
The source is extracted, and built as determined by the alienfile recipe. If there is a "gather_share" that will be executed last.
system
The "gather_system" hook will be executed.
 

test

 $build->test;

Run the test phase  

system

 $build->system($command);
 $build->system($command, @args);

Interpolates the command and arguments and run the results using the Perl "system" command.  

log

 $build->log($message);

Send a message to the log. By default this prints to "STDOUT".  

meta

 my $meta = Alien::Build->meta;
 my $meta = $build->meta;

Returns the meta object for your Alien::Build class or instance. The meta object is a way to manipulate the recipe, and so any changes to the meta object should be made before the "probe", "download" or "build" steps.  

META METHODS

 

prop

 my $href = $build->meta->prop;

Meta properties. This is the same as calling "meta_prop" on the class or Alien::Build instance.  

add_requires

 Alien::Build->meta->add_requires($phase, $module => $version, ...);

Add the requirement to the given phase. Phase should be one of:

configure
any
share
system
 

interpolator

 my $interpolator = $build->meta->interpolator;
 my $interpolator = Alien::Build->interpolator;

Returns the Alien::Build::Interpolate instance for the Alien::Build class.  

has_hook

 my $bool = $build->meta->has_hook($name);
 my $bool = Alien::Build->has_hook($name);

Returns if there is a usable hook registered with the given name.  

register_hook

 $build->meta->register_hook($name, $instructions);
 Alien::Build->meta->register_hook($name, $instructions);

Register a hook with the given name. $instruction should be either a code reference, or a command sequence, which is an array reference.  

default_hook

 $build->meta->default_hook($name, $instructions);
 Alien::Build->meta->default_hook($name, $instructions);

Register a default hook, which will be used if the alienfile does not register its own hook with that name.  

around_hook

 $build->meta->around_hook($hook, $code);
 Alien::Build->meta->around_hook($name, $code);

Wrap the given hook with a code reference. This is similar to a Moose method modifier, except that it wraps around the given hook instead of a method. For example, this will add a probe system requirement:

 $build->meta->around_hook(
   probe => sub {
     my $orig = shift;
     my $build = shift;
     my $type = $orig->($build, @_);
     return $type unless $type eq 'system';
     # also require a configuration file
     if(-f '/etc/foo.conf')
     {
       return 'system';
     }
     else
     {
       return 'share';
     }
   },
 );

 

apply_plugin

 Alien::Build->meta->apply_plugin($name);
 Alien::Build->meta->apply_plugin($name, @args);

Apply the given plugin with the given arguments.  

ENVIRONMENT

Alien::Build responds to these environment variables:
ALIEN_INSTALL_NETWORK
If set to true (the default), then network fetch will be allowed. If set to false, then network fetch will not be allowed.

What constitutes a local vs. network fetch is determined based on the "start_url" and "local_source" meta properties. An alienfile or plugin "could" override this detection (possibly inappropriately), so this variable is not a substitute for properly auditing of Perl modules for environments that require that.

ALIEN_INSTALL_TYPE
If set to "share" or "system", it will override the system detection logic. If set to "default", it will use the default setting for the alienfile. The behavior of other values is undefined.

Although the recommended way for a consumer to use an Alien::Base based Alien is to declare it as a static configure and build-time dependency, some consumers may prefer to fallback on using an Alien only when the consumer itself cannot detect the necessary package. In some cases the consumer may want the user to opt-in to using an Alien before requiring it.

To keep the interface consistent among Aliens, the consumer of the fallback opt-in Alien may fallback on the Alien if the environment variable "ALIEN_INSTALL_TYPE" is set to any value. The rationale is that by setting this environment variable the user is aware that Alien modules may be installed and have indicated consent. The actual implementation of this, by its nature would have to be in the consuming CPAN module.

ALIEN_BUILD_RC
Perl source file which can override some global defaults for Alien::Build, by, for example, setting preload and postload plugins.
ALIEN_BUILD_PKG_CONFIG
Override the logic in Alien::Build::Plugin::PkgConfig::Negotiate which chooses the best "pkg-config" plugin.
ALIEN_BUILD_PRELOAD
semicolon separated list of plugins to automatically load before parsing your alienfile.
ALIEN_BUILD_POSTLOAD
semicolon separated list of plugins to automatically load after parsing your alienfile.
DESTDIR
This environment variable will be manipulated during a destdir install.
PKG_CONFIG
This environment variable can be used to override the program name for "pkg-config" when using the command line plugin: Alien::Build::Plugin::PkgConfig::CommandLine.
ftp_proxy, all_proxy
If these environment variables are set, it may influence the Download negotiation plugin Alien::Build::Plugin::Downaload::Negotiate. Other proxy variables may be used by some Fetch plugins, if they support it.
 

SUPPORT

The intent of the "Alien-Build" team is to support as best as possible all Perls from 5.8.1 to the latest production version. So long as they are also supported by the Perl toolchain.

Please feel encouraged to report issues that you encounter to the project GitHub Issue tracker:

<https://github.com/Perl5-Alien/Alien-Build/issues>

Better if you can fix the issue yourself, please feel encouraged to open pull-request on the project GitHub:

<https://github.com/Perl5-Alien/Alien-Build/pulls>

If you are confounded and have questions, join us on the "#native" channel on irc.perl.org. The "Alien-Build" developers frequent this channel and can probably help point you in the right direction. If you don't have an IRC client handy, you can use this web interface:

<https://chat.mibbit.com/?channel=%23native&server=irc.perl.org>
 

SEE ALSO

Alien::Build::Manual::AlienAuthor, Alien::Build::Manual::AlienUser, Alien::Build::Manual::Contributing, Alien::Build::Manual::FAQ, Alien::Build::Manual::PluginAuthor

alienfile, Alien::Build::MM, Alien::Build::Plugin, Alien::Base, Alien  

THANKS

Alien::Base was originally written by Joel Berger, the rest of this project would not have been possible without him getting the project started. Thanks to his support I have been able to augment the original Alien::Base system with a reliable set of tools (Alien::Build, alienfile, Test::Alien), which make up this toolset.

The original Alien::Base is still copyright (c) 2012-2017 Joel Berger. It has the same license as the rest of the Alien::Build and related tools distributed as "Alien-Build". Joel Berger thanked a number of people who helped in in the development of Alien::Base, in the documentation for that module.

I would also like to acknowledge the other members of the Perl5-Alien github organization, Zakariyya Mughal (sivoais, ZMUGHAL) and mohawk (ETJ). Also important in the early development of Alien::Build were the early adopters Chase Whitener (genio, CAPOEIRAB, author of Alien::libuv), William N. Braswell, Jr (willthechill, WBRASWELL, author of Alien::JPCRE2 and Alien::PCRE2) and Ahmad Fatoum (a3f, ATHREEF, author of Alien::libudev and Alien::LibUSB).  

AUTHOR

Author: Graham Ollis <plicease@cpan.org>

Contributors:

Diab Jerius (DJERIUS)

Roy Storey

Ilya Pavlov

David Mertens (run4flat)

Mark Nunberg (mordy, mnunberg)

Christian Walde (Mithaldu)

Brian Wightman (MidLifeXis)

Zaki Mughal (zmughal)

mohawk (mohawk2, ETJ)

Vikas N Kumar (vikasnkumar)

Flavio Poletti (polettix)

Salvador Fandiño (salva)

Gianni Ceccarelli (dakkar)

Pavel Shaydo (zwon, trinitum)

Kang-min Liu (劉康民, gugod)

Nicholas Shipp (nshp)

Juan Julián Merelo Guervós (JJ)

Joel Berger (JBERGER)

Petr Pisar (ppisar)

Lance Wicks (LANCEW)

Ahmad Fatoum (a3f, ATHREEF)

José Joaquín Atria (JJATRIA)

Duke Leto (LETO)

Shoichi Kaji (SKAJI)

Shawn Laffan (SLAFFAN)

Paul Evans (leonerd, PEVANS)  

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is copyright (c) 2011-2019 by Graham Ollis.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.


 

Index

NAME
VERSION
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
CONSTRUCTORS
new
load
resume
PROPERTIES
meta_prop
install_prop
runtime_prop
hook_prop
METHODS
checkpoint
root
install_type
set_prefix
set_stage
requires
load_requires
probe
download
fetch
decode
prefer
extract
build
test
system
log
meta
META METHODS
prop
add_requires
interpolator
has_hook
register_hook
default_hook
around_hook
apply_plugin
ENVIRONMENT
SUPPORT
SEE ALSO
THANKS
AUTHOR
COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
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