Section: Perl Programmers Reference Guide (3pm)
Locale::Codes::Changes - details changes to Locale::Codes
This describes the changes made to modules in the Locale-Codes
distribution. Major changes are marked with asterisks (*). For the
most part, all modules have remained backward compatible at every
release, but occasionally a change is made which is backward
incompatible. These are marked with an exclamation mark (!).
As of 3.00, the codes are autogenerated from the standards. With each
release, codes will be re-generated and tested to see if any code
changed. Any time there are any changes to the codes, it will be
flagged below with a change: NEW CODE(s).
I intend to check for new codes four times a year (March, June,
September, December). I will also check on request, so if a code
changes that you use, feel free to contact me. Any time there are new
codes, I will add them to the module and release a new version.
VERSION 3.59 (planned 2018-12-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.58 (planned 2018-09-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.57 (planned 2018-06-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.56 (planned 2018-03-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.55 (2017-11-17; sbeck)
- (*) Deprecated in core
Because correct usage of any of the Locale::Codes modules requires that
they be kept up-to-date, I have long felt that it should not be distributed
as a core module. After discussion on the perl5-porters list, it is agreed,
and the deprecation process has been started.
Thanks to p5p-porters (especially Dagfinn Ilmari Mannsaker) for discussion
- Changes from a github pull request applied
A couple minor changes (updated .travis.yml to include newest versions of
perl; and a couple changes to pod_coverage.t) reported by lancew on GitHub.
- Got rid of Build.PL
Simplified things by only supporting one of Makefile.PL/Build.PL (and the latter
has been removed from perl core some time ago). RT 123572
- Fixed INSTALLDIRS
The behavior of installing core modules changed in 5.12 a bit, and Makefile.PL
now reflects that. RT 123571
VERSION 3.54 (2017-09-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.53 (2017-07-25; sbeck)
- Fixed the default error condition in legacy modules.
With the addition of the OO module, better error handling was added (and it
was on by default). The non-OO (legacy) modules did not report errors, so
code that uses them, would now behave differently if invalid data were
I have turned off error handling by default in the legacy modules. The
show_errors method was added to each of the non-OO modules to report errors
Reported by dmaestro on GitHub.
VERSION 3.52 (2017-06-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.51 (2017-04-10; sbeck)
- Tests no longer require (.) in INC
As of perl 5.25.11, (.) is being removed from INC. I had to adjust the
VERSION 3.50 (2017-03-01; sbeck)
- (*) Rewrote as OO module
The core module (Locale::Codes) is now an OO module that can be used
directly. All of the other modules (Locale::Codes::TYPE) are still
the older functional interfaces and remain unchanged.
- Added some constants
Historically, the constant names used to identify the codesets have been
named inconsistently. The original constants for codesets are:
For consistencies sake, I have added some new codes (which are otherwise
identical to the irregularly named codes):
Going forward, all constants will include the full name of the code type.
- Non-OO modules are now generated
All non-OO modules are now automatically generated. This will make it easier
to keep them 100% consistent as well as making it easier to add new types
of code sets.
All of the documentation for them is also generated except for the description
of the code sets. That has been moved into the Locale::Codes::Types document.
- Fixed a bug where constants were not exported
Some of the constants for some of the newer code sets were not exported properly.
This was fixed when I started generating the non-OO modules, but was reported
(after I had already fixed it in development) as RT 119741 .
VERSION 3.42 (2016-11-30; sbeck)
- Added Czech republic aliases back in
Common Czech republic aliases disappeared from the standards, so I added
them back in. Rob Emery
VERSION 3.41 (2016-11-18; sbeck)
(s) (Jiri Bohac noted that they were needed so this was release a
couple weeks earlier than planned)
VERSION 3.40 (2016-09-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.39 (2016-05-31; sbeck)
No new codes (for the existing codesets).
- Added UN codes back in
The UN codes have been added back in as their own list of codes.
- Added GENC codes
The GENC codes have been added. These are the new US Government codes
that replace the FIPS-10 codes. They are based on, but not identical to
the ISO 3166 codes.
VERSION 3.38 (2016-03-02; sbeck)
- Tests reworked
Improved test suite (and made some changes to Codes.pm) based on Devel::Cover.
Test suite now has 100% coverage.
VERSION 3.37 (2015-12-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.36 (2015-09-01; sbeck)
- (!) Removed alias_code function
The alias_code function was preserved for backward compatibility, but
has been deprecated since 3.20. It has been removed.
VERSION 3.35 (2015-06-01; sbeck)
- Documentation improvements
Many changes to the formatting in the documentation to improve it. Suggested
by Pete Houston.
VERSION 3.34 (2015-03-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.33 (2014-12-01; sbeck)
- Filled out LOCALE_LANG_TERM codeset
The terminologic language codes only included codes from languages where
the ISO specified both a bibliographic code and a terminologic code. If
both are not specified, the better solution was to use the code for both
code sets. Prompted by a suggestion by Jarkko Hietaniemi.
- Moved repository to GitHub
Suggested by Gabor Szabo.
VERSION 3.32 (2014-09-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.31 (2014-06-01; sbeck)
- Bug fixes
Fixed a bug in the scripts used to extract data from spreadsheets
that prevented the SHP currency code from being found. RT 94229
VERSION 3.30 (2014-03-04; sbeck)
- alias_code remove date set
The alias_code function exists for backward compatibility. It has been
deprecated since version 3.20 when it was replaced by rename_country_code.
The alias_code function will be removed in the December 2014 release.
- Bug fixes
Fixed a problem that was preventing rename_* functions to not work.
VERSION 3.29 (2014-01-27; sbeck)
- ISO 3166 country codes improved
ISO 3166 is now browsable online (previously, only the alpha-2 codes were)
and it contains more accurate information than the previous sources, so
I've switched to using the full standard. In response to RT 92303 which
reported some codes being 'retired' that should not have been.
- Bug fixes
Fixed the pod test files so that pod tests won't get run at install
time. In response to RT 91167.
VERSION 3.28 (2013-12-02; sbeck)
VERSION 3.27 (2013-09-03; sbeck)
- * FIPS-10 country codes removed
As of June, the FIPS codes are not being published in their
entirety. Only changes to the codes are published. This adds
a huge layer of complexity to maintaining the set, which is not
worth doing considering that the set is deprecated. As such, the
code set is no longer supported.
VERSION 3.26 (2013-06-03; sbeck)
- Documentation fixes
Some of the examples were not correct. RT 84589
Some typos corrected. RT 85692
VERSION 3.25 (2013-03-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.24 (2012-12-03; sbeck)
- Syria alias
Syria added as an alias. RT 82747
- FIPS-10 country codes deprecated
The FIPS-10 document is being withdrawn. It was deprecated in 2008,
and is being updated now only until all the agencies that use it have
switched to something else. The current version no longer lists the
long names for countries. These long names (such as 'Republic of
Albania' for Albania) only appeared in the old FIPS-10 document which
is no longer available, so they are no longer available in this module.
I will continue to support the FIPS-10 codeset as long as it is available,
but at that point, it will be withdrawn immediately. If an official
end-of-life date is announced, I will include a notice here. Otherwise, support
for the codeset will be discontinued when the document is withdrawn.
You are encouraged to no longer use the FIPS-10 codeset.
- Domain country codes now come from ISO 3166
The IANA domain codes have changed slightly. The IANA no longer
publishes a list of countries associated with their codes. Instead,
they use the ISO 3166 codes and country names. However, they support
a few non-standard codes, so I will continue to maintain this codeset.
The domain codes are now lowercase to correspond to the ISO 3166 codes.
VERSION 3.23 (2012-09-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.22 (2012-06-01; sbeck)
- Updated perl version required
Changed 'require 5.002' (which dated back to the version 2.xx Locale-Codes)
to 'require 5.006'. Some features used in Locale-Codes are not supported that
far back. Nicholas Clark
- Sorted deprecated codes
The codes in the generated deprecated codes modules were not sorted making version
diffs bigger than they should be. Nicholas Clark
VERSION 3.21 (2012-03-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.20 (2011-12-01; sbeck)
- Added limited support for deprecated codes
The code2XXX, XXX2code, all_XXX_codes, and all_XXX_names functions
now support retired codes. RT 71124
- Fixed capitalization
The 'South Sudan' country was all caps. RT 71024
- Pod tests off by default
The pod tests will not run at install time. RT 71122
- Codesets may be specified by name
All codesets may be specified by a constant or by their name now. Previously,
they were specified only by a constant.
- alias_code deprecated
The alias_code function exists for backward compatibility. It has been replaced
by rename_country_code . The alias_code function will be removed sometime
after September, 2013 .
- Code cleanup
All work is now done in the central module (Locale::Codes). Previously, some
was still done in the wrapper modules (Locale::Codes::*) but that is gone now.
- Added LangFam module
Added Language Family codes (langfam) as defined in ISO 639-5.
VERSION 3.18 (2011-08-31; sbeck)
- No longer use CIA data
The CIA world added non-standard values, so I no longer use it as
a source of data. Based on a report by Michiel Beijen.
VERSION 3.17 (2011-06-28; sbeck)
- Added new types of codes
Added Language Extension codes (langext) and Language Variation codes
(langvar) as defined in the IANA language registry.
- Added new codeset(s)
Added language codes from ISO 639-5
Added language/script codes from the IANA language subtag registry
- Bug fixes
Fixed an uninitialized value warning. RT 67438
Fixed the return value for the all_XXX_codes and all_XXX_names functions. RT 69100
- Reorganized code
Reorganized modules to move Locale::MODULE to Locale::Codes::MODULE to
allow for cleaner future additions. The original four modules (Locale::Language,
Locale::Currency, Locale::Country, Locale::Script) will continue to work, but
all new sets of codes will be added in the Locale::Codes namespace.
VERSION 3.16 (2011-03-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.15 (2010-12-02; sbeck)
- Minor fixes
Added version number to Makefile.PL/Build.PL requirement
for POD testing modules. RT 62247
Changed 'use vars' to 'our'
VERSION 3.14 (2010-09-28; sbeck)
- Bug fixes
Stripped out some HTML that got included with some codes.
VERSION 3.13 (2010-06-04; sbeck)
VERSION 3.12 (2010-04-06; sbeck)
- Reorganized code
Renamed test.pl to testfunc.pl to avoid causing an error
when built as part of perl.
VERSION 3.11 (2010-03-01; sbeck)
- Added new codeset(s)
Added the IANA domain names to Country
- Bug fixes
Fixed a problem that produced warnings with perl 5.11.5.
Jerry D. Hedden
VERSION 3.10 (2010-02-18; sbeck)
- Reorganized code
Moved support files into the Locale::Codes namespace.
The work done in each of the Locale::XXX modules was virtually
identical to each other. It has all been moved to a central module and
the Locale::XXX modules are now just wrappers.
- (!) Changed XXX_code2code behavior slightly
In previous versions, passing in the same code set for both code set
arguments would automatically return undef. For example:
This doesn't seem like reasonable behavior, so it has been changed
to allow the same code set:
Note that if an invalid code is passed in, undef will still be
- Added many semi-private routines
Previous versions had only two semi-private routines: rename_country
and alias_code which had the ability to modify the internal data in
a couple very limited ways. It was requested (in an anonymous posting
by someone named Steve and also by Steve Hay) that better support
for modifying internal data, so a full set of routines were added.
The full set of routines includes:
- New aliases
Added ``UK'' alias. Steve Hay
VERSION 3.01 (2010-02-15; sbeck)
- Fixed Makefile.PL and Build.PL
They now install as core modules as they are supposed to. Reported in
VERSION 3.00 (2010-02-10; sbeck)
- (*) New maintainer
From 1997 to 2004, Locale::Codes was maintained by Neil
Bowers. Unfortunately, no updates were made from June 2004 to January
2010. During that time, a number of changes have been made to the
standards since then, so the data included was out-of-date.
I contacted Neil to get his permission to assume maintenance of
the module, and he kindly agreed.
- (*) (!) All codes are generated from standards
All of the values returned by the various functions are now values
directly from the standards. This means that the values returned in
the 2.xx series are not necessarily the same as the values returned
As an example, the ISO 3166 standard which lists country codes refers
to the country associated with the code ``bo'' as ``Bolivia,
Plurinational State of'', so that is what is returned. In the 2.xx
series, ``Bolivia'' was returned. Also, the country names vary from one
standard to another. So the code ``bol'' which is maintained by the
United Nations returns the name of the country as ``Bolivia
(Plurinational State of)''. Some common aliases have been added, so you
can still request a code associated with a county name ``Bolivia''.
Since the data comes from the standards, some ``incorrect'' values are
no longer supported. For example, 2.07 treated ``Zaire'' as an alias for
``Congo'', but the country changed it's name, and ``Zaire'' is not in the
standard, so it has been dropped in 3.00.
- Added new codeset(s)
FIPS 10 country codes (requested in RT 1755)
Alpha-3 and Term language codes (requested in RT 11730)
Numeric currency codes (requested in RT 18797)
- (*) (!) Locale::Script changed
In 2.xx, Locale::Script assigned scripts to country codes, which is NOT
how it is done currently in the standards. It appears that an older version
of ISO 15924 did this, but I haven't found an old version to confirm
that, and in any case, that is not the case in the current standards.
As a result, the Locale::Script module is completely incompatible with
the 2.xx version with respect to the types of codes it supports. None of
the old codes will work.
- Added missing functions
I've added in some functions which were ``missing'' previously (since there was
only one set of codes supported, the code2code functions didn't apply):
so the interfaces for each type of codes are consistent.
- (!) Dropped support for _alias_code
In Locale::Country, _alias_code was an allowed, but deprecated function
which was documented to be supported in the 2.xx series. I've removed it.
- (!) All functions return the standard value
code2country (and other equivalent functions) now returns the name of
the country specified in the standard (if the different standards
refer to the country by different variations in the name, the results
will differ based on the CODESET)
- (!) rename_country function altered
The rename_country function from 2.07 would guess the CODESET (unlike
all other functions which used a default of LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_2). The
guess can cause problems since (with the addition of FIPS) codes may
appear in different codesets for different countries. The behavior has
been changed to be the same as other functions (default to
VERSION 2.07 (2004-06-10; neilb)
local in the initialization code for each module
change back-propagated from Perl distribution
Removed two non ISO-8859-1 characters from language names
change back-propagated from Perl distribution
Added the following aliases, with a test case for each
- Burma added to Myanmar
- French Southern and Antarctic Lands to
French Southern Territories
patch from TJ Mather
``Canadian Dollar'' was misspelled as ``Candian Dollar''
- noted by Nick Cabatoff, patch from Michael Hennecke
Changes to Locale::Country reflecting changes in ISO 3166
- added Aland Islands (ax, ala, 248)
- YUGOSLAVIA is now SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO
YU => CS
YUG => SCG
891 => 891 (unchanged)
(YUGOSLAVIA retained as an alias)
- EAST TIMOR changed to TIMOR-LESTE
(old name retained as an alias)
- three letter code for Romania changed from ROM to ROU
ZAIRE is now CONGO, THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE
ZR => CD
ZAR => COD
180 => 180 (unchanged)
(ZAIRE retained as alias)
VERSION 2.06 (2002-07-15; neilb)
The four modules which have data after __DATA__ weren't closing the
filehandle after reading from it, which they should. Bug and
patch from Steve Hay.
VERSION 2.05 (2002-07-08; neilb)
Added three letter codes for the countries that were missing
them. Patch from TJ
Documentation bug: one of the examples used => where the
lvalue was a constant, which isn't allowed, unless you
put the () with the constant to force the right interpretation.
Pointed out by TJ Mather and MYT.
Updated the URL for the appendix in the CIA world factbook.
Patch from TJ Mather.
VERSION 2.04 (2002-05-23; neilb)
Updated according to changes in ISO 3166-1
in ISO 3166-1
newsletters V-4 and V-5, dated 2002-05-20:
- Kazakstan is now ``Kazakhstan''
- Macau is now ``Macao''
The old names are retained as aliases.
The alpha-2 and alpha-3 codes for East Timor have changed:
tp -> tl
tmp -> tls
the numeric code stays 626. If you want to support the old
codes, you can use the semi-private function alias_code().
VERSION 2.03 (2002-03-24; neilb)
Fixed a typo in the alias for the Vatican, reported (with patch)
by Philip Newton.
Added ``Moldova'' as an alias for ``Moldova, Republic of''
Updated Makefile.PL to include AUTHOR and ABSTRACT
VERSION 2.02 (2002-03-09; neilb)
Added semi-private routine rename_country()
based on a patch from Iain Chalmers.
Added test rename.t for the above function.
Renamed _alias_code to be alias_code. Have retained the old
name for backwards compatibility. Will remove it when the
major version number next changes.
VERSION 2.01 (2002-02-18; neilb)
Split the documentation for all modules into separate pod files.
Made sure all =over were =over 4; some were other values.
The code2code() methods had one more shift than was needed.
VERSION 2.00 (2002-02-17; neilb)
Created Locale::Script which provides an interface to the ISO
for identification of scripts (writing scripts, rather than perl style
scripts). The codes are defined by ISO 15924,
which is currently in
final draft. Thanks to Jarkko for pointing out this new standard.
All three code sets are supported, and a test-suite added.
Added support for country name variants to Locale::Country,
country2code('United States of America')
will all return 'us'. This had been in the LIMITATIONS section since
the first version. Patch from TJ Mather with additional variants from
me. Added test-cases for these.
Added VERSION to Locale::Constants. Thanks to Jarkko for
pointing that it was missing.
Should really have bumped major version with previous release,
since there was a change to the API.
VERSION 1.06 (2001-03-04; neilb)
Added Locale::Constants, which defines three symbols for identifying
which codeset is being used:
Updated Locale::Country to support all three code sets defined by ISO
3166. This was requested by Keith Wall. I haven't added multiple
codeset support to the other modules yet - I'll wait until someone
asks for them.
VERSION 1.05 (2001-02-13; neilb)
Added Locale::Currency, contribution from Michael Hennecke.
Added test suite for it (t/currency.t) and added test cases
to t/all.t for the all_* functions.
VERSION 1.04 (2000-12-21; neilb)
Fixed very minor typos from 1.03!
VERSION 1.03 (2000-12-??; neilb)
- fixed spelling of a few countries
- added link to a relevant page from CIA
- fixed typo in the documentation (ISO 939 should be 639)
VERSION 1.02 (2000-05-04; neilb)
Updated Locale::Country and Locale::Language to reflect changes in the
standards. These mainly reflect languages which are new
to the relevant standard, and changes in the spelling of some country
Added official URLs for the standards to the SEE ALSO sections of the
doc for each module.
Thanks to Jarkko Hietaniemi for pointing me at the pages with latest
versions of ISO 3166 and 639.
VERSION 1.00 (1998-03-09; neilb)
so that 'uk' can be added as the
code for ``United Kingdom'', if you want it. This was prompted by Ed
Added a new test suite for handling this case, and extended the
existing test-suite to include testing of the case where 'uk' hasn't
been defined as a valid code.
VERSION 0.003 (1997-05-09; neilb)
First public release to CPAN
See Locale::Codes for full author history.
Currently maintained by Sullivan Beck (email@example.com).
Copyright (c) 2001-2010 Neil Bowers
Copyright (c) 2010-2018 Sullivan Beck
This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.