MIME::Type

Section: User Contributed Perl Documentation (3)
Updated: 2019-07-26
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NAME

MIME::Type - description of one MIME type  

SYNOPSIS

 use MIME::Types;
 my $mimetypes = MIME::Types->new;
 my MIME::Type $plaintext = $mimetypes->type('text/plain');
 print $plaintext->mediaType;   # text
 print $plaintext->subType;     # plain

 my @ext = $plaintext->extensions;
 print "@ext"                   # txt asc c cc h hh cpp

 print $plaintext->encoding     # 8bit
 if($plaintext->isBinary)       # false
 if($plaintext->isAscii)        # true
 if($plaintext->equals('text/plain') {...}
 if($plaintext eq 'text/plain') # same

 print MIME::Type->simplified('x-appl/x-zip') #  'appl/zip'

 

DESCRIPTION

MIME types are used in MIME entities, for instance as part of e-mail and HTTP traffic. Sometimes real knowledge about a mime-type is need. Objects of "MIME::Type" store the information on one such type.  

OVERLOADED

overload: string comparison
When a MIME::Type object is compared to either a string or another MIME::TYpe, the equals() method is called. Comparison is smart, which means that it extends common string comparison with some features which are defined in the related RFCs.
overload: stringification
The stringification (use of the object in a place where a string is required) will result in the type name, the same as type() returns.

example: use of stringification

 my $mime = MIME::Type->new('text/html');
 print "$mime\n";   # explicit stringification
 print $mime;       # implicit stringification

 

METHODS

 

Initiation

MIME::Type->new(%options)
Create (instantiate) a new MIME::Type object which manages one mime type.

 -Option    --Default
  encoding    <depends on type>
  extensions  []
  simplified  <derived from type>
  system      undef
  type        <required>

encoding => '7bit'|'8bit'|'base64'|'quoted-printable'
How must this data be encoded to be transported safely. The default depends on the type: mimes with as main type "text/" will default to "quoted-printable" and all other to "base64".
extensions => REF-ARRAY
An array of extensions which are using this mime.
simplified => STRING
The mime types main- and sub-label can both start with "x-", to indicate that is a non-registered name. Of course, after registration this flag can disappear which adds to the confusion. The simplified string has the "x-" thingies removed and are translated to lower-case.
system => REGEX
Regular expression which defines for which systems this rule is valid. The REGEX is matched on $^O.
type => STRING
The type which is defined here. It consists of a type and a sub-type, both case-insensitive. This module will return lower-case, but accept upper-case.
 

Attributes

$obj->encoding()
Returns the type of encoding which is required to transport data of this type safely.
$obj->extensions()
Returns a list of extensions which are known to be used for this mime type.
$obj->simplified( [$string] )
MIME::Type->simplified( [$string] )
Returns the simplified mime type for this object or the specified STRING. Mime type names can get officially registered. Until then, they have to carry an "x-" preamble to indicate that. Of course, after recognition, the "x-" can disappear. In many cases, we prefer the simplified version of the type.

example: results of simplified()

 my $mime = MIME::Type->new(type => 'x-appl/x-zip');
 print $mime->simplified;                     # 'appl/zip'

 print $mime->simplified('text/PLAIN');       # 'text/plain'
 print MIME::Type->simplified('x-xyz/x-abc'); # 'xyz/abc'

$obj->system()
Returns the regular expression which can be used to determine whether this type is active on the system where you are working on.
$obj->type()
Returns the long type of this object, for instance 'text/plain'
 

Knowledge

$obj->equals($string|$mime)
Compare this mime-type object with a STRING or other object. In case of a STRING, simplification will take place.
$obj->isAscii()
Old name for isText().
$obj->isBinary()
Returns true when the type is not known to be text. See isText().
$obj->isExperimental()
[2.00] Return "true" when the type is defined for experimental use; the subtype starts with "x."
$obj->isPersonal()
[2.00] Return "true" when the type is defined by a person for private use; the subtype starts with "prs."
$obj->isRegistered()
Mime-types which are not registered by IANA nor defined in RFCs shall start with an "x-". This counts for as well the media-type as the sub-type. In case either one of the types starts with "x-" this method will return false.
$obj->isSignature()
Returns true when the type is in the list of known signatures.
$obj->isText()
[2.05] All types which may have the charset attribute, are text. However, there is currently no record of attributes in this module... so we guess.
$obj->isVendor()
[2.00] Return "true" when the type is defined by a vendor; the subtype starts with "vnd."
$obj->mediaType()
The media type of the simplified mime. For 'text/plain' it will return 'text'.

For historical reasons, the 'mainType' method still can be used to retrieve the same value. However, that method is deprecated.

$obj->subType()
The sub type of the simplified mime. For 'text/plain' it will return 'plain'.
 

DIAGNOSTICS

Error: Type parameter is obligatory.
When a MIME::Type object is created, the type itself must be specified with the "type" option flag.
 

SEE ALSO

This module is part of MIME-Types distribution version 2.17, built on January 26, 2018. Website: http://perl.overmeer.net/CPAN/  

LICENSE

Copyrights 1999-2018 by [Mark Overmeer <markov@cpan.org>]. For other contributors see ChangeLog.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See http://dev.perl.org/licenses/


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OVERLOADED
METHODS
Initiation
Attributes
Knowledge
DIAGNOSTICS
SEE ALSO
LICENSE
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