Mojo::DOM

Section: User Contributed Perl Documentation (3)
Updated: 2018-11-22
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NAME

Mojo::DOM - Minimalistic HTML/XML DOM parser with CSS selectors  

SYNOPSIS

  use Mojo::DOM;

  # Parse
  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new('<div><p id="a">Test</p><p id="b">123</p></div>');

  # Find
  say $dom->at('#b')->text;
  say $dom->find('p')->map('text')->join("\n");
  say $dom->find('[id]')->map(attr => 'id')->join("\n");

  # Iterate
  $dom->find('p[id]')->reverse->each(sub { say $_->{id} });

  # Loop
  for my $e ($dom->find('p[id]')->each) {
    say $e->{id}, ':', $e->text;
  }

  # Modify
  $dom->find('div p')->last->append('<p id="c">456</p>');
  $dom->at('#c')->prepend($dom->new_tag('p', id => 'd', '789'));
  $dom->find(':not(p)')->map('strip');

  # Render
  say "$dom";

 

DESCRIPTION

Mojo::DOM is a minimalistic and relaxed HTML/XML DOM parser with CSS selector support. It will even try to interpret broken HTML and XML, so you should not use it for validation.  

NODES AND ELEMENTS

When we parse an HTML/XML fragment, it gets turned into a tree of nodes.

  <!DOCTYPE html>
  <html>
    <head><title>Hello</title></head>
    <body>World!</body>
  </html>

There are currently eight different kinds of nodes, "cdata", "comment", "doctype", "pi", "raw", "root", "tag" and "text". Elements are nodes of the type "tag".

  root
  |- doctype (html)
  +- tag (html)
     |- tag (head)
     |  +- tag (title)
     |     +- raw (Hello)
     +- tag (body)
        +- text (World!)

While all node types are represented as Mojo::DOM objects, some methods like ``attr'' and ``namespace'' only apply to elements.  

CASE-SENSITIVITY

Mojo::DOM defaults to HTML semantics, that means all tags and attribute names are lowercased and selectors need to be lowercase as well.

  # HTML semantics
  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new('<P ID="greeting">Hi!</P>');
  say $dom->at('p[id]')->text;

If an XML declaration is found, the parser will automatically switch into XML mode and everything becomes case-sensitive.

  # XML semantics
  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new('<?xml version="1.0"?><P ID="greeting">Hi!</P>');
  say $dom->at('P[ID]')->text;

HTML or XML semantics can also be forced with the ``xml'' method.

  # Force HTML semantics
  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new->xml(0)->parse('<P ID="greeting">Hi!</P>');
  say $dom->at('p[id]')->text;

  # Force XML semantics
  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new->xml(1)->parse('<P ID="greeting">Hi!</P>');
  say $dom->at('P[ID]')->text;

 

METHODS

Mojo::DOM implements the following methods.  

all_text

  my $text = $dom->all_text;

Extract text content from all descendant nodes of this element.

  # "foo\nbarbaz\n"
  $dom->parse("<div>foo\n<p>bar</p>baz\n</div>")->at('div')->all_text;

 

ancestors

  my $collection = $dom->ancestors;
  my $collection = $dom->ancestors('div ~ p');

Find all ancestor elements of this node matching the CSS selector and return a Mojo::Collection object containing these elements as Mojo::DOM objects. All selectors from ``SELECTORS'' in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

  # List tag names of ancestor elements
  say $dom->ancestors->map('tag')->join("\n");

 

append

  $dom = $dom->append('<p>I ♥ Mojolicious!</p>');
  $dom = $dom->append(Mojo::DOM->new);

Append HTML/XML fragment to this node (for all node types other than "root").

  # "<div><h1>Test</h1><h2>123</h2></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')
    ->at('h1')->append('<h2>123</h2>')->root;

  # "<p>Test 123</p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')
    ->child_nodes->first->append(' 123')->root;

 

append_content

  $dom = $dom->append_content('<p>I ♥ Mojolicious!</p>');
  $dom = $dom->append_content(Mojo::DOM->new);

Append HTML/XML fragment (for "root" and "tag" nodes) or raw content to this node's content.

  # "<div><h1>Test123</h1></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')
    ->at('h1')->append_content('123')->root;

  # "<!-- Test 123 --><br>"
  $dom->parse('<!-- Test --><br>')
    ->child_nodes->first->append_content('123 ')->root;

  # "<p>Test<i>123</i></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->append_content('<i>123</i>')->root;

 

at

  my $result = $dom->at('div ~ p');
  my $result = $dom->at('svg|line', svg => 'http://www.w3.org/2000/svg');

Find first descendant element of this element matching the CSS selector and return it as a Mojo::DOM object, or "undef" if none could be found. All selectors from ``SELECTORS'' in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

  # Find first element with "svg" namespace definition
  my $namespace = $dom->at('[xmlns\:svg]')->{'xmlns:svg'};

Trailing key/value pairs can be used to declare xml namespace aliases.

  # "<rect />"
  $dom->parse('<svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"><rect /></svg>')
    ->at('svg|rect', svg => 'http://www.w3.org/2000/svg');

 

attr

  my $hash = $dom->attr;
  my $foo  = $dom->attr('foo');
  $dom     = $dom->attr({foo => 'bar'});
  $dom     = $dom->attr(foo => 'bar');

This element's attributes.

  # Remove an attribute
  delete $dom->attr->{id};

  # Attribute without value
  $dom->attr(selected => undef);

  # List id attributes
  say $dom->find('*')->map(attr => 'id')->compact->join("\n");

 

child_nodes

  my $collection = $dom->child_nodes;

Return a Mojo::Collection object containing all child nodes of this element as Mojo::DOM objects.

  # "<p><b>123</b></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test<b>123</b></p>')->at('p')->child_nodes->first->remove;

  # "<!DOCTYPE html>"
  $dom->parse('<!DOCTYPE html><b>123</b>')->child_nodes->first;

  # " Test "
  $dom->parse('<b>123</b><!-- Test -->')->child_nodes->last->content;

 

children

  my $collection = $dom->children;
  my $collection = $dom->children('div ~ p');

Find all child elements of this element matching the CSS selector and return a Mojo::Collection object containing these elements as Mojo::DOM objects. All selectors from ``SELECTORS'' in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

  # Show tag name of random child element
  say $dom->children->shuffle->first->tag;

 

content

  my $str = $dom->content;
  $dom    = $dom->content('<p>I ♥ Mojolicious!</p>');
  $dom    = $dom->content(Mojo::DOM->new);

Return this node's content or replace it with HTML/XML fragment (for "root" and "tag" nodes) or raw content.

  # "<b>Test</b>"
  $dom->parse('<div><b>Test</b></div>')->at('div')->content;

  # "<div><h1>123</h1></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')->at('h1')->content('123')->root;

  # "<p><i>123</i></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->content('<i>123</i>')->root;

  # "<div><h1></h1></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')->at('h1')->content('')->root;

  # " Test "
  $dom->parse('<!-- Test --><br>')->child_nodes->first->content;

  # "<div><!-- 123 -->456</div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><!-- Test -->456</div>')
    ->at('div')->child_nodes->first->content(' 123 ')->root;

 

descendant_nodes

  my $collection = $dom->descendant_nodes;

Return a Mojo::Collection object containing all descendant nodes of this element as Mojo::DOM objects.

  # "<p><b>123</b></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p><!-- Test --><b>123<!-- 456 --></b></p>')
    ->descendant_nodes->grep(sub { $_->type eq 'comment' })
    ->map('remove')->first;

  # "<p><b>test</b>test</p>"
  $dom->parse('<p><b>123</b>456</p>')
    ->at('p')->descendant_nodes->grep(sub { $_->type eq 'text' })
    ->map(content => 'test')->first->root;

 

find

  my $collection = $dom->find('div ~ p');
  my $collection = $dom->find('svg|line', svg => 'http://www.w3.org/2000/svg');

Find all descendant elements of this element matching the CSS selector and return a Mojo::Collection object containing these elements as Mojo::DOM objects. All selectors from ``SELECTORS'' in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

  # Find a specific element and extract information
  my $id = $dom->find('div')->[23]{id};

  # Extract information from multiple elements
  my @headers = $dom->find('h1, h2, h3')->map('text')->each;

  # Count all the different tags
  my $hash = $dom->find('*')->reduce(sub { $a->{$b->tag}++; $a }, {});

  # Find elements with a class that contains dots
  my @divs = $dom->find('div.foo\.bar')->each;

Trailing key/value pairs can be used to declare xml namespace aliases.

  # "<rect />"
  $dom->parse('<svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"><rect /></svg>')
    ->find('svg|rect', svg => 'http://www.w3.org/2000/svg')->first;

 

following

  my $collection = $dom->following;
  my $collection = $dom->following('div ~ p');

Find all sibling elements after this node matching the CSS selector and return a Mojo::Collection object containing these elements as Mojo::DOM objects. All selectors from ``SELECTORS'' in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

  # List tags of sibling elements after this node
  say $dom->following->map('tag')->join("\n");

 

following_nodes

  my $collection = $dom->following_nodes;

Return a Mojo::Collection object containing all sibling nodes after this node as Mojo::DOM objects.

  # "C"
  $dom->parse('<p>A</p><!-- B -->C')->at('p')->following_nodes->last->content;

 

matches

  my $bool = $dom->matches('div ~ p');
  my $bool = $dom->matches('svg|line', svg => 'http://www.w3.org/2000/svg');

Check if this element matches the CSS selector. All selectors from ``SELECTORS'' in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

  # True
  $dom->parse('<p class="a">A</p>')->at('p')->matches('.a');
  $dom->parse('<p class="a">A</p>')->at('p')->matches('p[class]');

  # False
  $dom->parse('<p class="a">A</p>')->at('p')->matches('.b');
  $dom->parse('<p class="a">A</p>')->at('p')->matches('p[id]');

Trailing key/value pairs can be used to declare xml namespace aliases.

  # True
  $dom->parse('<svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"><rect /></svg>')
    ->matches('svg|rect', svg => 'http://www.w3.org/2000/svg');

 

namespace

  my $namespace = $dom->namespace;

Find this element's namespace, or return "undef" if none could be found.

  # Find namespace for an element with namespace prefix
  my $namespace = $dom->at('svg > svg\:circle')->namespace;

  # Find namespace for an element that may or may not have a namespace prefix
  my $namespace = $dom->at('svg > circle')->namespace;

 

new

  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new;
  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new('<foo bar="baz">I ♥ Mojolicious!</foo>');

Construct a new scalar-based Mojo::DOM object and ``parse'' HTML/XML fragment if necessary.  

new_tag

  my $tag = Mojo::DOM->new_tag('div');
  my $tag = $dom->new_tag('div');
  my $tag = $dom->new_tag('div', id => 'foo', hidden => undef);
  my $tag = $dom->new_tag('div', 'safe content');
  my $tag = $dom->new_tag('div', id => 'foo', 'safe content');
  my $tag = $dom->new_tag('div', data => {mojo => 'rocks'}, 'safe content');
  my $tag = $dom->new_tag('div', id => 'foo', sub { 'unsafe content' });

Construct a new Mojo::DOM object for an HTML/XML tag with or without attributes and content. The "data" attribute may contain a hash reference with key/value pairs to generate attributes from.

  # "<br>"
  $dom->new_tag('br');

  # "<div></div>"
  $dom->new_tag('div');

  # "<div id="foo" hidden></div>"
  $dom->new_tag('div', id => 'foo', hidden => undef);

  # "<div>test &amp; 123</div>"
  $dom->new_tag('div', 'test & 123');

  # "<div id="foo">test &amp; 123</div>"
  $dom->new_tag('div', id => 'foo', 'test & 123');

  # "<div data-foo="1" data-bar="test">test &amp; 123</div>""
  $dom->new_tag('div', data => {foo => 1, Bar => 'test'}, 'test & 123');

  # "<div id="foo">test & 123</div>"
  $dom->new_tag('div', id => 'foo', sub { 'test & 123' });

  # "<div>Hello<b>Mojo!</b></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div>Hello</div>')->at('div')
    ->append_content($dom->new_tag('b', 'Mojo!'))->root;

 

next

  my $sibling = $dom->next;

Return Mojo::DOM object for next sibling element, or "undef" if there are no more siblings.

  # "<h2>123</h2>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1><h2>123</h2></div>')->at('h1')->next;

 

next_node

  my $sibling = $dom->next_node;

Return Mojo::DOM object for next sibling node, or "undef" if there are no more siblings.

  # "456"
  $dom->parse('<p><b>123</b><!-- Test -->456</p>')
    ->at('b')->next_node->next_node;

  # " Test "
  $dom->parse('<p><b>123</b><!-- Test -->456</p>')
    ->at('b')->next_node->content;

 

parent

  my $parent = $dom->parent;

Return Mojo::DOM object for parent of this node, or "undef" if this node has no parent.

  # "<b><i>Test</i></b>"
  $dom->parse('<p><b><i>Test</i></b></p>')->at('i')->parent;

 

parse

  $dom = $dom->parse('<foo bar="baz">I ♥ Mojolicious!</foo>');

Parse HTML/XML fragment with Mojo::DOM::HTML.

  # Parse XML
  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new->xml(1)->parse('<foo>I ♥ Mojolicious!</foo>');

 

preceding

  my $collection = $dom->preceding;
  my $collection = $dom->preceding('div ~ p');

Find all sibling elements before this node matching the CSS selector and return a Mojo::Collection object containing these elements as Mojo::DOM objects. All selectors from ``SELECTORS'' in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

  # List tags of sibling elements before this node
  say $dom->preceding->map('tag')->join("\n");

 

preceding_nodes

  my $collection = $dom->preceding_nodes;

Return a Mojo::Collection object containing all sibling nodes before this node as Mojo::DOM objects.

  # "A"
  $dom->parse('A<!-- B --><p>C</p>')->at('p')->preceding_nodes->first->content;

 

prepend

  $dom = $dom->prepend('<p>I ♥ Mojolicious!</p>');
  $dom = $dom->prepend(Mojo::DOM->new);

Prepend HTML/XML fragment to this node (for all node types other than "root").

  # "<div><h1>Test</h1><h2>123</h2></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h2>123</h2></div>')
    ->at('h2')->prepend('<h1>Test</h1>')->root;

  # "<p>Test 123</p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>123</p>')
    ->at('p')->child_nodes->first->prepend('Test ')->root;

 

prepend_content

  $dom = $dom->prepend_content('<p>I ♥ Mojolicious!</p>');
  $dom = $dom->prepend_content(Mojo::DOM->new);

Prepend HTML/XML fragment (for "root" and "tag" nodes) or raw content to this node's content.

  # "<div><h2>Test123</h2></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h2>123</h2></div>')
    ->at('h2')->prepend_content('Test')->root;

  # "<!-- Test 123 --><br>"
  $dom->parse('<!-- 123 --><br>')
    ->child_nodes->first->prepend_content(' Test')->root;

  # "<p><i>123</i>Test</p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->prepend_content('<i>123</i>')->root;

 

previous

  my $sibling = $dom->previous;

Return Mojo::DOM object for previous sibling element, or "undef" if there are no more siblings.

  # "<h1>Test</h1>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1><h2>123</h2></div>')->at('h2')->previous;

 

previous_node

  my $sibling = $dom->previous_node;

Return Mojo::DOM object for previous sibling node, or "undef" if there are no more siblings.

  # "123"
  $dom->parse('<p>123<!-- Test --><b>456</b></p>')
    ->at('b')->previous_node->previous_node;

  # " Test "
  $dom->parse('<p>123<!-- Test --><b>456</b></p>')
    ->at('b')->previous_node->content;

 

remove

  my $parent = $dom->remove;

Remove this node and return ``root'' (for "root" nodes) or ``parent''.

  # "<div></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')->at('h1')->remove;

  # "<p><b>456</b></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>123<b>456</b></p>')
    ->at('p')->child_nodes->first->remove->root;

 

replace

  my $parent = $dom->replace('<div>I ♥ Mojolicious!</div>');
  my $parent = $dom->replace(Mojo::DOM->new);

Replace this node with HTML/XML fragment and return ``root'' (for "root" nodes) or ``parent''.

  # "<div><h2>123</h2></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')->at('h1')->replace('<h2>123</h2>');

  # "<p><b>123</b></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')
    ->at('p')->child_nodes->[0]->replace('<b>123</b>')->root;

 

root

  my $root = $dom->root;

Return Mojo::DOM object for "root" node.  

selector

  my $selector = $dom->selector;

Get a unique CSS selector for this element.

  # "ul:nth-child(1) > li:nth-child(2)"
  $dom->parse('<ul><li>Test</li><li>123</li></ul>')->find('li')->last->selector;

  # "p:nth-child(1) > b:nth-child(1) > i:nth-child(1)"
  $dom->parse('<p><b><i>Test</i></b></p>')->at('i')->selector;

 

strip

  my $parent = $dom->strip;

Remove this element while preserving its content and return ``parent''.

  # "<div>Test</div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')->at('h1')->strip;

 

tag

  my $tag = $dom->tag;
  $dom    = $dom->tag('div');

This element's tag name.

  # List tag names of child elements
  say $dom->children->map('tag')->join("\n");

 

tap

  $dom = $dom->tap(sub {...});

Alias for ``tap'' in Mojo::Base.  

text

  my $text = $dom->text;

Extract text content from this element only (not including child elements).

  # "bar"
  $dom->parse("<div>foo<p>bar</p>baz</div>")->at('p')->text;

  # "foo\nbaz\n"
  $dom->parse("<div>foo\n<p>bar</p>baz\n</div>")->at('div')->text;

 

to_string

  my $str = $dom->to_string;

Render this node and its content to HTML/XML.

  # "<b>Test</b>"
  $dom->parse('<div><b>Test</b></div>')->at('div b')->to_string;

 

tree

  my $tree = $dom->tree;
  $dom     = $dom->tree(['root']);

Document Object Model. Note that this structure should only be used very carefully since it is very dynamic.  

type

  my $type = $dom->type;

This node's type, usually "cdata", "comment", "doctype", "pi", "raw", "root", "tag" or "text".

  # "cdata"
  $dom->parse('<![CDATA[Test]]>')->child_nodes->first->type;

  # "comment"
  $dom->parse('<!-- Test -->')->child_nodes->first->type;

  # "doctype"
  $dom->parse('<!DOCTYPE html>')->child_nodes->first->type;

  # "pi"
  $dom->parse('<?xml version="1.0"?>')->child_nodes->first->type;

  # "raw"
  $dom->parse('<title>Test</title>')->at('title')->child_nodes->first->type;

  # "root"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->type;

  # "tag"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->type;

  # "text"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->child_nodes->first->type;

 

val

  my $value = $dom->val;

Extract value from form element (such as "button", "input", "option", "select" and "textarea"), or return "undef" if this element has no value. In the case of "select" with "multiple" attribute, find "option" elements with "selected" attribute and return an array reference with all values, or "undef" if none could be found.

  # "a"
  $dom->parse('<input name=test value=a>')->at('input')->val;

  # "b"
  $dom->parse('<textarea>b</textarea>')->at('textarea')->val;

  # "c"
  $dom->parse('<option value="c">Test</option>')->at('option')->val;

  # "d"
  $dom->parse('<select><option selected>d</option></select>')
    ->at('select')->val;

  # "e"
  $dom->parse('<select multiple><option selected>e</option></select>')
    ->at('select')->val->[0];

  # "on"
  $dom->parse('<input name=test type=checkbox>')->at('input')->val;

 

with_roles

  my $new_class = Mojo::DOM->with_roles('Mojo::DOM::Role::One');
  my $new_class = Mojo::DOM->with_roles('+One', '+Two');
  $dom          = $dom->with_roles('+One', '+Two');

Alias for ``with_roles'' in Mojo::Base.  

wrap

  $dom = $dom->wrap('<div></div>');
  $dom = $dom->wrap(Mojo::DOM->new);

Wrap HTML/XML fragment around this node (for all node types other than "root"), placing it as the last child of the first innermost element.

  # "<p>123<b>Test</b></p>"
  $dom->parse('<b>Test</b>')->at('b')->wrap('<p>123</p>')->root;

  # "<div><p><b>Test</b></p>123</div>"
  $dom->parse('<b>Test</b>')->at('b')->wrap('<div><p></p>123</div>')->root;

  # "<p><b>Test</b></p><p>123</p>"
  $dom->parse('<b>Test</b>')->at('b')->wrap('<p></p><p>123</p>')->root;

  # "<p><b>Test</b></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->child_nodes->first->wrap('<b>')->root;

 

wrap_content

  $dom = $dom->wrap_content('<div></div>');
  $dom = $dom->wrap_content(Mojo::DOM->new);

Wrap HTML/XML fragment around this node's content (for "root" and "tag" nodes), placing it as the last children of the first innermost element.

  # "<p><b>123Test</b></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test<p>')->at('p')->wrap_content('<b>123</b>')->root;

  # "<p><b>Test</b></p><p>123</p>"
  $dom->parse('<b>Test</b>')->wrap_content('<p></p><p>123</p>');

 

xml

  my $bool = $dom->xml;
  $dom     = $dom->xml($bool);

Disable HTML semantics in parser and activate case-sensitivity, defaults to auto-detection based on XML declarations.  

OPERATORS

Mojo::DOM overloads the following operators.  

array

  my @nodes = @$dom;

Alias for ``child_nodes''.

  # "<!-- Test -->"
  $dom->parse('<!-- Test --><b>123</b>')->[0];

 

bool

  my $bool = !!$dom;

Always true.  

hash

  my %attrs = %$dom;

Alias for ``attr''.

  # "test"
  $dom->parse('<div id="test">Test</div>')->at('div')->{id};

 

stringify

  my $str = "$dom";

Alias for ``to_string''.  

SEE ALSO

Mojolicious, Mojolicious::Guides, <https://mojolicious.org>.


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
NODES AND ELEMENTS
CASE-SENSITIVITY
METHODS
all_text
ancestors
append
append_content
at
attr
child_nodes
children
content
descendant_nodes
find
following
following_nodes
matches
namespace
new
new_tag
next
next_node
parent
parse
preceding
preceding_nodes
prepend
prepend_content
previous
previous_node
remove
replace
root
selector
strip
tag
tap
text
to_string
tree
type
val
with_roles
wrap
wrap_content
xml
OPERATORS
array
bool
hash
stringify
SEE ALSO
LinuxReviews : manual page archive : man3pm