/etc/smartmontools/smartd.conf is the configuration file for the smartd daemon.
If the configuration file /etc/smartmontools/smartd.conf is present, smartd reads it at startup. If smartd subsequently receives a HUP signal, it will then re-read the configuration file. If smartd is running in debug mode, then an INT signal will also make it re-read the configuration file. This signal can be generated by typing <CONTROL-C> in the terminal window where smartd is running.
In the absence of a configuration file smartd will try to open all available devices (see smartd(8) man page). A configuration file with a single line 'DEVICESCAN -a' would have the same effect.
This can be annoying if you have an ATA or SCSI device that hangs or misbehaves when receiving SMART commands. Even if this causes no problems, you may be annoyed by the string of error log messages about devices that can't be opened.
One can avoid this problem, and gain more control over the types of events monitored by smartd, by using the configuration file /etc/smartmontools/smartd.conf. This file contains a list of devices to monitor, with one device per line. An example file is included with the smartmontools distribution. You will find this sample configuration file in /usr/share/doc/smartmontools/. For security, the configuration file should not be writable by anyone but root. The syntax of the file is as follows:
Here is an example configuration file. It's for illustrative purposes only; please don't copy it onto your system without reading to the end of the DIRECTIVES Section below!
################################################ # This is an example smartd startup config file # /etc/smartmontools/smartd.conf # # On the second disk, start a long self-test every # Sunday between 3 and 4 am. # /dev/sda -a -m email@example.com,root@localhost /dev/sdb -a -I 194 -I 5 -i 12 -s L/../../7/03 # # Send a TEST warning email to admin on startup. # /dev/sdc -m firstname.lastname@example.org -M test # # Strange device. It's SCSI. Start a scheduled # long self test between 5 and 6 am Monday/Thursday /dev/weird -d scsi -s L/../../(1|4)/05 # # An ATA disk may appear as a SCSI device to the # OS. If a SCSI to ATA Translation (SAT) layer # is between the OS and the device then this can be # flagged with the '-d sat' option. This situation # may become common with SATA disks in SAS and FC # environments. /dev/sda -a -d sat # # Three disks connected to a MegaRAID controller # Start short self-tests daily between 1-2, 2-3, and # 3-4 am. /dev/sda -d megaraid,0 -a -s S/../.././01 /dev/sda -d megaraid,1 -a -s S/../.././02 /dev/sda -d megaraid,2 -a -s S/../.././03 /dev/bus/0 -d megaraid,2 -a -s S/../.././03 # # Three disks connected to an AacRaid controller # Start short self-tests daily between 1-2, 2-3, and # 3-4 am. /dev/sda -d aacraid,0,0,66 -a -s S/../.././01 /dev/sda -d aacraid,0,0,67 -a -s S/../.././02 /dev/sda -d aacraid,0,0,68 -a -s S/../.././03 # # Two SATA (not SAS) disks on a 3ware 9750 controller. # Start long self-tests Sundays between midnight and # 1 am and 2-3 am # under Linux /dev/twl0 -d 3ware,0 -a -s L/../../7/00 /dev/twl0 -d 3ware,1 -a -s L/../../7/02 # # Three SATA disks on a HighPoint RocketRAID controller. # Start short self-tests daily between 1-2, 2-3, and # 3-4 am. # under Linux /dev/sde -d hpt,1/1 -a -s S/../.././01 /dev/sde -d hpt,1/2 -a -s S/../.././02 /dev/sde -d hpt,1/3 -a -s S/../.././03 # # Two SATA disks connected to a HighPoint RocketRAID # via a pmport device. Start long self-tests Sundays # between midnight and 1 am and 2-3 am. # under Linux /dev/sde -d hpt,1/4/1 -a -s L/../../7/00 /dev/sde -d hpt,1/4/2 -a -s L/../../7/02 # # Three SATA disks connected to an Areca # RAID controller. Start long self-tests Sundays # between midnight and 3 am. # under Linux /dev/sg2 -d areca,1 -a -s L/../../7/00 /dev/sg2 -d areca,2 -a -s L/../../7/01 /dev/sg2 -d areca,3 -a -s L/../../7/02 # # Two SATA disks on an Intelliprop controller. # Start short self-tests daily between 1-2, 2-3, and # 3-4 am. /dev/sde -d intelliprop,0+sat -a -s S/../.././01 /dev/sde -d intelliprop,1+sat -a -s S/../.././02 # # The following line enables monitoring of the # ATA Error Log and the Self-Test Error Log. # It also tracks changes in both Prefailure # and Usage Attributes, apart from Attributes # 9, 194, and 231, and shows continued lines: # /dev/sdd -l error \ -l selftest \ -t \ # Attributes not tracked: -I 194 \ # temperature -I 231 \ # also temperature -I 9 # power-on hours # ################################################
DEVICESCAN may optionally be followed by Directives that will apply to all devices that are found in the scan. For example
DEVICESCAN -m email@example.com
will scan for all devices, and then monitor them. It will send one email warning per device for any problems that are found.
DEVICESCAN -H -m firstname.lastname@example.org
will do the same, but only monitors the SMART health status of the devices, rather than the default '-a'.
Multiple '-d TYPE' options may be specified with DEVICESCAN to combine the scan results of more than one TYPE.
Configuration entries for specific devices may precede the DEVICESCAN entry. For example
DEFAULT -m email@example.com /dev/sda -s S/../.././02 /dev/sdc -d ignore DEVICESCAN -s L/../.././02
will scan for all devices except /dev/sda and /dev/sdc, monitor them, and run a long test between 2-3 am every morning. Device /dev/sda will also be monitored, but only a short test will be run. Device /dev/sdc will be ignored. Warning emails will be sent for all monitored devices.
A device is ignored by DEVICESCAN if a configuration line with the same device name exists. A device name is also ignored if another device with same identify information (vendor, model, firmware version, serial number, WWN) already exists.
DEFAULT -a -R5! -W 2,40,45 -I 194 -s L/../../7/00 -m firstname.lastname@example.org /dev/sda /dev/sdb /dev/sdc DEFAULT -H -m email@example.com /dev/sdd /dev/sde -d removable
has the same effect as:
/dev/sda -a -R5! -W 2,40,45 -I 194 -s L/../../7/00 -m firstname.lastname@example.org /dev/sdb -a -R5! -W 2,40,45 -I 194 -s L/../../7/00 -m email@example.com /dev/sdc -a -R5! -W 2,40,45 -I 194 -s L/../../7/00 -m firstname.lastname@example.org /dev/sdd -H -m email@example.com /dev/sde -d removable -H -m firstname.lastname@example.org
For an ATA device, if no Directives appear, then the device will be monitored as if the '-a' Directive (monitor all SMART properties) had been given.
If a SCSI disk is listed, it will be monitored at the maximum implemented level: roughly equivalent to using the '-H -l selftest' options for an ATA disk. So with the exception of '-d', '-m', '-l selftest', '-s', and '-M', the Directives below are ignored for SCSI disks. For SCSI disks, the '-m' Directive sends a warning email if the SMART status indicates a disk failure or problem, if the SCSI inquiry about disk status fails, or if new errors appear in the self-test log.
If a 3ware controller is used then the corresponding SCSI (/dev/sd?) or character device (/dev/twe?, /dev/twa?, /dev/twl? or /dev/tws?) must be listed, along with the '-d 3ware,N' Directive (see below). The individual ATA disks hosted by the 3ware controller appear to smartd as normal ATA devices. Hence all the ATA directives can be used for these disks (but see note below).
If an Areca controller is used then the corresponding device (SCSI /dev/sg? on Linux or /dev/arcmsr0 on FreeBSD) must be listed, along with the '-d areca,N' Directive (see below). The individual SATA disks hosted by the Areca controller appear to smartd as normal ATA devices. Hence all the ATA directives can be used for these disks. Areca firmware version 1.46 or later which supports smartmontools must be used; Please see the smartctl(8) man page for further details.
auto - attempt to guess the device type from the device name or from controller type info provided by the operating system or from a matching USB ID entry in the drive database. This is the default.
ata - the device type is ATA. This prevents smartd from issuing SCSI commands to an ATA device.
scsi - the device type is SCSI. This prevents smartd from issuing ATA commands to a SCSI device.
nvme[,NSID] - the device type is NVM Express (NVMe). The optional parameter NSID specifies the namespace id (in hex) passed to the driver. Use 0xffffffff for the broadcast namespace id. The default for NSID is the namespace id addressed by the device name.
sat[,auto][,N] - the device type is SCSI to ATA Translation (SAT). This is for ATA disks that have a SCSI to ATA Translation Layer (SATL) between the disk and the operating system. SAT defines two ATA PASS THROUGH SCSI commands, one 12 bytes long and the other 16 bytes long. The default is the 16 byte variant which can be overridden with either '-d sat,12' or '-d sat,16'.
If '-d sat,auto' is specified, device type SAT (for ATA/SATA disks) is only used if the SCSI INQUIRY data reports a SATL (VENDOR: "ATA "). Otherwise device type SCSI (for SCSI/SAS disks) is used.
usbcypress - this device type is for ATA disks that are behind a Cypress USB to PATA bridge. This will use the ATACB proprietary scsi pass through command. The default SCSI operation code is 0x24, but although it can be overridden with '-d usbcypress,0xN', where N is the scsi operation code, you're running the risk of damage to the device or filesystems on it.
usbjmicron[,p][,x][,PORT] - this device type is for SATA disks that are behind a JMicron USB to PATA/SATA bridge. The 48-bit ATA commands (required e.g. for '-l xerror', see below) do not work with all of these bridges and are therefore disabled by default. These commands can be enabled by '-d usbjmicron,x'. If two disks are connected to a bridge with two ports, an error message is printed if no PORT is specified. The port can be specified by '-d usbjmicron[,x],PORT' where PORT is 0 (master) or 1 (slave). This is not necessary if the device uses a port multiplier to connect multiple disks to one port. The disks appear under separate /dev/ice names then. CAUTION: Specifying ',x' for a device which does not support it results in I/O errors and may disconnect the drive. The same applies if the specified PORT does not exist or is not connected to a disk.
The Prolific PL2507/3507 USB bridges with older firmware support a pass-through command similar to JMicron and work with '-d usbjmicron,0'. Newer Prolific firmware requires a modified command which can be selected by '-d usbjmicron,p'. Note that this does not yet support the SMART status command.
usbprolific - this device type is for SATA disks that are behind a Prolific PL2571/2771/2773/2775 USB to SATA bridge.
usbsunplus - this device type is for SATA disks that are behind a SunplusIT USB to SATA bridge.
sntjmicron[,NSID] - [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTD FEATURE] this device type is for NVMe disks that are behind a JMicron USB to NVMe bridge. The optional parameter NSID specifies the namespace id (in hex) passed to the driver. The default namespace id is the broadcast namespace id (0xffffffff).
marvell - [Linux only] interact with SATA disks behind Marvell chip-set controllers (using the Marvell rather than libata driver).
megaraid,N - [Linux only] the device consists of one or more SCSI/SAS disks connected to a MegaRAID controller. The non-negative integer N (in the range of 0 to 127 inclusive) denotes which disk on the controller is monitored. This interface will also work for Dell PERC controllers. In log files and email messages this disk will be identified as megaraid_disk_XXX with XXX in the range from 000 to 127 inclusive. It is possible to set RAID device name as /dev/bus/N, where N is a SCSI bus number. Please see the smartctl(8) man page for further details.
aacraid,H,L,ID - [Linux, Windows and Cygwin only] the device consists of one or more SCSI/SAS or SATA disks connected to an AacRaid controller. The non-negative integers H,L,ID (Host number, Lun, ID) denote which disk on the controller is monitored. In log files and email messages this disk will be identified as aacraid_disk_HH_LL_ID. Please see the smartctl(8) man page for further details.
3ware,N - [FreeBSD and Linux only] the device consists of one or more ATA disks connected to a 3ware RAID controller. The non-negative integer N (in the range from 0 to 127 inclusive) denotes which disk on the controller is monitored. In log files and email messages this disk will be identified as 3ware_disk_XXX with XXX in the range from 000 to 127 inclusive.
Note that while you may use any of the 3ware SCSI logical devices /dev/tw* to address any of the physical disks (3ware ports), error and log messages will make the most sense if you always list the 3ware SCSI logical device corresponding to the particular physical disks. Please see the smartctl(8) man page for further details.
areca,N - [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows and Cygwin only] the device consists of one or more SATA disks connected to an Areca SATA RAID controller. The positive integer N (in the range from 1 to 24 inclusive) denotes which disk on the controller is monitored. In log files and email messages this disk will be identified as areca_disk_XX with XX in the range from 01 to 24 inclusive. Please see the smartctl(8) man page for further details.
areca,N/E - [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows and Cygwin only] the device consists of one or more SATA or SAS disks connected to an Areca SAS RAID controller. The integer N (range 1 to 128) denotes the channel (slot) and E (range 1 to 8) denotes the enclosure. Important: This requires Areca SAS controller firmware version 1.51 or later.
cciss,N - [FreeBSD and Linux only] the device consists of one or more SCSI/SAS or SATA disks connected to a cciss RAID controller. The non-negative integer N (in the range from 0 to 15 inclusive) denotes which disk on the controller is monitored. In log files and email messages this disk will be identified as cciss_disk_XX with XX in the range from 00 to 15 inclusive. Please see the smartctl(8) man page for further details.
hpt,L/M/N - [FreeBSD and Linux only] the device consists of one or more ATA disks connected to a HighPoint RocketRAID controller. The integer L is the controller id, the integer M is the channel number, and the integer N is the PMPort number if it is available. The allowed values of L are from 1 to 4 inclusive, M are from 1 to 128 inclusive and N from 1 to 4 if PMPort available. And also these values are limited by the model of the HighPoint RocketRAID controller. In log files and email messages this disk will be identified as hpt_X/X/X and X/X/X is the same as L/M/N, note if no N indicated, N set to the default value 1. Please see the smartctl(8) man page for further details.
intelliprop,N[+TYPE] - the device consists of multiple ATA disks connected to an Intelliprop controller. The integer N is the port number from 0 to 3 of the ATA drive to be targeted. Please see the smartctl(8) man page for further details.
jmb39x,N[,sLBA][,force][+TYPE] - [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTD FEATURE] the device consists of multiple SATA disks connected to a JMicron JMB39x RAID port multiplier. The integer N is the port number from 0 to 4. Please see the smartctl(8) man page for further details.
ignore - the device specified by this configuration entry should be ignored. This allows to ignore specific devices which are detected by a following DEVICESCAN configuration line. It may also be used to temporary disable longer multi-line configuration entries. This Directive may be used in conjunction with the other '-d' Directives.
- the device or its media is removable. This indicates to
that it should continue (instead of exiting, which is the default
behavior) if the device does not appear to be present when
smartd is started.
This directive also suppresses warning emails and repeated log messages
if the device is removed after startup.
This Directive may be used in conjunction with the other '-d'
WARNING: Removing a device and connecting a different one to same interface is not supported and may result in bogus warnings until smartd is restarted.
ATA disks have five different power states. In order of increasing power consumption they are: 'OFF', 'SLEEP', 'STANDBY', 'IDLE', and 'ACTIVE'. Typically in the OFF, SLEEP, and STANDBY modes the disk's platters are not spinning. But usually, in response to SMART commands issued by smartd, the disk platters are spun up. So if this option is not used, then a disk which is in a low-power mode may be spun up and put into a higher-power mode when it is periodically polled by smartd.
Note that if the disk is in SLEEP mode when smartd is started, then it won't respond to smartd commands, and so the disk won't be registered as a device for smartd to monitor. If a disk is in any other low-power mode, then the commands issued by smartd to register the disk will probably cause it to spin-up.
The '-n' (nocheck) Directive specifies if smartd's periodic checks should still be carried out when the device is in a low-power mode. It may be used to prevent a disk from being spun-up by periodic smartd polling. The allowed values of POWERMODE are:
never - smartd will poll (check) the device regardless of its power mode. This may cause a disk which is spun-down to be spun-up when smartd checks it. This is the default behavior if the '-n' Directive is not given.
sleep - check the device unless it is in SLEEP mode.
standby - check the device unless it is in SLEEP or STANDBY mode. In these modes most disks are not spinning, so if you want to prevent a laptop disk from spinning up each time that smartd polls, this is probably what you want.
idle - check the device unless it is in SLEEP, STANDBY or IDLE mode. In the IDLE state, most disks are still spinning, so this is probably not what you want.
Maximum number of skipped checks (in a row) can be specified by appending positive number ',N' to POWERMODE (like '-n standby,15'). After N checks are skipped in a row, powermode is ignored and the check is performed anyway.
When a periodic test is skipped, smartd normally writes an informal log message. The message can be suppressed by appending the option ',q' to POWERMODE (like '-n standby,q'). This prevents a laptop disk from spinning up due to this message.
Both ',N' and ',q' can be specified together.
normal - do not try to monitor the disk if a mandatory SMART command fails, but continue if an optional SMART command fails. This is the default.
permissive - try to monitor the disk even if it appears to lack SMART capabilities. This may be required for some old disks (prior to ATA-3 revision 4) that implemented SMART before the SMART standards were incorporated into the ATA/ATAPI Specifications. [Please see the smartctl -T command-line option.]
The delay between tests is vendor-specific, but is typically four hours.
Note that SMART Automatic Offline Testing is not part of the ATA Specification. Please see the smartctl -o command-line option documentation for further information about this feature.
[NVMe] Checks the "Critical Warning" byte from the SMART/Health Information log. If any warning bit is set, a message at loglevel 'LOG_CRIT' will be logged to syslog.
error - [ATA] report if the number of ATA errors reported in the Summary SMART error log has increased since the last check.
error - [NVMe] report if the "Number of Error Information Log Entries" from the SMART/Health Information log has increased since the last check.
xerror - [ATA] report if the number of ATA errors reported in the Extended Comprehensive SMART error log has increased since the last check.
If both '-l error' and '-l xerror' are specified, smartd checks the maximum of both values.
[Please see the smartctl -l xerror command-line option.]
xerror - [NVMe] same as '-l error'.
selftest - report if the number of failed tests reported in the SMART Self-Test Log has increased since the last check, or if the timestamp associated with the most recent failed test has increased. Note that such errors will only be logged if you run self-tests on the disk (and it fails a test!). Self-Tests can be run automatically by smartd: please see the '-s' Directive below. Self-Tests can also be run manually by using the '-t short' and '-t long' options of smartctl and the results of the testing can be observed using the smartctl '-l selftest' command-line option. [Please see the smartctl -l and -t command-line options.]
[ATA only] Failed self-tests outdated by a newer successful extended self-test are ignored. The warning email counter is reset if the number of failed self tests dropped to 0. This typically happens when an extended self-test is run after all bad sectors have been reallocated.
offlinests[,ns] - [ATA only] report if the Offline Data Collection status has changed since the last check. The report will be logged as LOG_CRIT if the new status indicates an error. With some drives the status often changes, therefore '-l offlinests' is not enabled by '-a' Directive. Appending ',ns' (no standby) to this directive is not implemented on Linux.
selfteststs[,ns] - [ATA only] report if the Self-Test execution status has changed since the last check. The report will be logged as LOG_CRIT if the new status indicates an error. Appending ',ns' (no standby) to this directive is not implemented on Linux.
scterc,READTIME,WRITETIME - [ATA only] sets the SCT Error Recovery Control settings to the specified values (deciseconds) when smartd starts up and has no further effect. Values of 0 disable the feature, other values less than 65 are probably not supported. For RAID configurations, this is typically set to 70,70 deciseconds. [Please see the smartctl -l scterc command-line option.]
aam,[N|off] - [ATA only] Sets the Automatic Acoustic Management (AAM) feature.
apm,[N|off] - [ATA only] Sets the Advanced Power Management (APM) feature.
lookahead,[on|off] - [ATA only] Sets the read look-ahead feature.
security-freeze - [ATA only] Sets ATA Security feature to frozen mode.
standby,[N|off] - [ATA only] Sets the standby (spindown) timer and places the drive in the IDLE mode.
wcache,[on|off] - [ATA only] Sets the volatile write cache feature.
dsn,[on|off] - [ATA only] Sets the DSN feature.
To run scheduled Selective Self-Tests, use 'n' for next span, 'r' to redo last span, or 'c' to continue with next span or redo last span based on status of last test. The LBA range is based on the first span from the last test. See the smartctl -t select,[next|redo|cont] options for further info.
Some disks (e.g. WD) do not preserve the selective self test log across power cycles. If state persistence ('-s' option) is enabled, the last test span is preserved by smartd and used if (and only if) the selective self test log is empty.
To schedule a short Self-Test between 2-3 am every morning, use:
To schedule a long Self-Test between 4-5 am every Sunday morning, use:
To schedule a long Self-Test between 10-11 pm on the first and fifteenth day of each month, use:
To schedule an Offline Immediate test after every midnight, 6 am, noon, and 6 pm, plus a Short Self-Test daily at 1-2 am and a Long Self-Test every Saturday at 3-4 am, use:
If Long Self-Tests of a large disks take longer than the system uptime, a full disk test can be performed by several Selective Self-Tests. To setup a full test of a 1 TB disk within 20 days (one 50 GB span each day), run this command once:
smartctl -t select,0-99999999 /dev/sdaTo run the next test spans on Monday-Friday between 12-13 am, run smartd with this directive:
Scheduled tests are run immediately following the regularly-scheduled device polling, if the current local date, time, and test type, match REGEXP. By default the regularly-scheduled device polling occurs every thirty minutes after starting smartd. Take caution if you use the '-i' option to make this polling interval more than sixty minutes: the poll times may fail to coincide with any of the testing times that you have specified with REGEXP. In this case the test will be run following the next device polling.
Before running an offline or self-test, smartd checks to be sure that a self-test is not already running. If a self-test is already running, then this running self test will not be interrupted to begin another test.
smartd will not attempt to run any type of test if another test was already started or run in the same hour.
To avoid performance problems during system boot, smartd will not attempt to run any scheduled tests following the very first device polling (unless '-q onecheck' is specified).
Each time a test is run, smartd will log an entry to SYSLOG. You can use these or the '-q showtests' command-line option to verify that you constructed REGEXP correctly. The matching order (L before S before C before O) ensures that if multiple test types are all scheduled for the same hour, the longer test type has precedence. This is usually the desired behavior.
If the scheduled tests are used in conjunction with state persistence ('-s' option), smartd will also try to match the hours since last shutdown (or 90 days at most). If any test would have been started during downtime, the longest (see above) of these tests is run after second device polling.
If the '-n' directive is used and any test would have been started during disk standby time, the longest of these tests is run when the disk is active again.
Unix users: please beware that the rules for extended regular expressions [regex(7)] are not the same as the rules for file-name pattern matching by the shell [glob(7)]. smartd will issue harmless informational warning messages if it detects characters in REGEXP that appear to indicate that you have made this mistake.
To prevent your email in-box from getting filled up with warning messages, by default only a single warning and (depending on '-s' option) daily reminder emails will be sent for each of the enabled alert types. See the '-M' Directive below for details.
To test that email is being sent correctly, use the '-M test' Directive described below to send one test email message on smartd startup.
By default, email is sent using the system mail(1) command. In order that smartd find this command (normally /usr/bin/mail) the executable must be in the path of the shell or environment from which smartd was started. If you wish to specify an explicit path to the mail executable (for example /usr/local/bin/mail) or a custom script to run, please use the '-M exec' Directive below.
Note also that there is a special argument <nomailer> which can be given to the '-m' Directive in conjunction with the '-M exec' Directive. Please see below for an explanation of its effect.
If the mailer or the shell running it produces any STDERR/STDOUT output, then a snippet of that output will be copied to SYSLOG. The remainder of the output is discarded. If problems are encountered in sending mail, this should help you to understand and fix them. If you have mail problems, we recommend running smartd in debug mode with the '-d' flag, using the '-M test' Directive described below.
If a word of the comma separated list has the form '@plugin', a custom script /etc/smartmontools/smartd_warning.d/plugin is run and the word is removed from the list before sending mail. The string 'plugin' may be any valid name except 'ALL'. If '@ALL' is specified, all scripts in /etc/smartmontools/smartd_warning.d/* are run instead. This is handled by the script /etc/smartmontools/smartd_warning.sh (see also '-M exec' below).
Multiple -M Directives may be given. If more than one of the following three -M Directives are given (example: -M once -M daily) then the final one (in the example, -M daily) is used.
The valid arguments to the -M Directive are (one of the following three):
once - send only one warning email for each type of disk problem detected. This is the default unless state persistence ('-s' option) is enabled.
daily - send additional warning reminder emails, once per day, for each type of disk problem detected. This is the default if state persistence ('-s' option) is enabled.
diminishing - send additional warning reminder emails, after a one-day interval, then a two-day interval, then a four-day interval, and so on for each type of disk problem detected. Each interval is twice as long as the previous interval.
If a disk problem is no longer detected, the internal email counter is reset. If the problem reappears a new warning email is sent immediately.
In addition, one may add zero or more of the following Directives:
test - send a single test email immediately upon smartd startup. This allows one to verify that email is delivered correctly. Note that if this Directive is used, smartd will also send the normal email warnings that were enabled with the '-m' Directive, in addition to the single test email!
exec PATH - run the executable PATH instead of the default mail command, when smartd needs to send email. PATH must point to an executable binary file or script.
By setting PATH to point to a customized script, you can make smartd perform useful tricks when a disk problem is detected (beeping the console, shutting down the machine, broadcasting warnings to all logged-in users, etc.) But please be careful. smartd will block until the executable PATH returns, so if your executable hangs, then smartd will also hang. Some sample scripts are included in /usr/share/doc/smartmontools/examplescripts/.
The exit status of the executable is recorded by smartd in SYSLOG. The executable is not expected to write to STDOUT or STDERR. If it does, then this is interpreted as indicating that something is going wrong with your executable, and a fragment of this output is logged to SYSLOG to help you to understand the problem. Normally, if you wish to leave some record behind, the executable should send mail or write to a file or device.
Before running the executable, smartd sets a number of environment variables. These environment variables may be used to control the executable's behavior. The environment variables exported by smartd are:
-s "$SMARTD_SUBJECT" $SMARTD_ADDRESSthat would normally be provided to 'mail'. Examples include:
If the '-m ADD' Directive is given with the special address argument <nomailer> then the executable pointed to by PATH is run in a shell with no STDIN and no command-line arguments, for example:
-m <nomailer> -M exec /Example_2/shell/script/below
If the executable produces any STDERR/STDOUT output, then smartd assumes that something is going wrong, and a snippet of that output will be copied to SYSLOG. The remainder of the output is then discarded.
Some EXAMPLES of scripts that can be used with the '-M exec' Directive are given below. Some sample scripts are also included in /usr/share/doc/smartmontools/examplescripts/.
The executable is run by the script /etc/smartmontools/smartd_warning.sh. This script formats subject and full message based on SMARTD_MESSAGE and other environment variables set by smartd. The environment variables SMARTD_SUBJECT and SMARTD_FULLMESSAGE are set by the script before running the executable.
This is useful, for example, if you have a very old disk and don't want to keep getting messages about the hours-on-lifetime Attribute (usually Attribute 9) failing. This Directive may appear multiple times for a single device, if you want to ignore multiple Attributes.
This is useful, for example, if one of the device Attributes is the disk temperature (usually Attribute 194 or 231). It's annoying to get reports each time the temperature changes. This Directive may appear multiple times for a single device, if you want to ignore multiple Attributes.
A common use of this Directive is to track the device Temperature (often ID=194 or 231).
If the optional flag '!' is appended, a change of the Normalized value is considered critical. The report will be logged as LOG_CRIT and a warning email will be sent if '-m' is specified.
If this Directive is given, it automatically implies the '-r' Directive for the same Attribute, so that the Raw value of the Attribute is reported.
A common use of this Directive is to track the device Temperature (often ID=194 or 231). It is also useful for understanding how different types of system behavior affects the values of certain Attributes.
If the optional flag '!' is appended, a change of the Raw value is considered critical. The report will be logged as LOG_CRIT and a warning email will be sent if '-m' is specified. An example is '-R 5!' to warn when new sectors are reallocated.
If '+' is specified, a report is only printed if the number of sectors has increased between two check cycles. Some disks do not reset this attribute when a bad sector is reallocated. See also '-v 197,increasing' below.
The warning email counter is reset if the number of pending sectors dropped to 0. This typically happens when all pending sectors have been reallocated or could be read again.
A pending sector is a disk sector (containing 512 bytes of your data) which the device would like to mark as "bad" and reallocate. Typically this is because your computer tried to read that sector, and the read failed because the data on it has been corrupted and has inconsistent Error Checking and Correction (ECC) codes. This is important to know, because it means that there is some unreadable data on the disk. The problem of figuring out what file this data belongs to is operating system and file system specific. You can typically force the sector to reallocate by writing to it (translation: make the device substitute a spare good sector for the bad one) but at the price of losing the 512 bytes of data stored there.
If '+' is specified, a report is only printed if the number of sectors has increased since the last check cycle. Some disks do not reset this attribute when a bad sector is reallocated. See also '-v 198,increasing' below.
The warning email counter is reset if the number of offline uncorrectable sectors dropped to 0. This typically happens when all offline uncorrectable sectors have been reallocated or could be read again.
An offline uncorrectable sector is a disk sector which was not readable during an off-line scan or a self-test. This is important to know, because if you have data stored in this disk sector, and you need to read it, the read will fail. Please see the previous '-C' option for more details.
The warning email counter is reset if the temperature dropped below INFO or CRIT-5 if INFO is not specified.
If this directive is used in conjunction with state persistence ('-s' option), the min and max temperature values are preserved across boot cycles. The minimum temperature value is not updated during the first 30 minutes after startup.
To disable any of the 3 reports, set the corresponding limit to 0. Trailing zero arguments may be omitted. By default, all temperature reports are disabled ('-W 0').
To track temperature changes of at least 2 degrees, use:
To log informal messages on temperatures of at least 40 degrees, use:
For warning messages/mails on temperatures of at least 45 degrees, use:
To combine all of the above reports, use:
For ATA devices, smartd interprets Attribute 194 or 190 as Temperature Celsius by default. This can be changed to Attribute 9 or 220 by the drive database or by the '-v 9,temp' or '-v 220,temp' directive.
For NVMe devices, smartd checks the maximum of the Composite Temperature value and all Temperature Sensor values reported by SMART/Health Information log.
none - Assume that the device firmware obeys the ATA specifications. This is the default, unless the device has presets for '-F' in the drive database. Using this directive will override any preset values.
nologdir - Suppresses read attempts of SMART or GP Log Directory. Support for all standard logs is assumed without an actual check. Some Intel SSDs may freeze if log address 0 is read.
samsung - In some Samsung disks (example: model SV4012H Firmware Version: RM100-08) some of the two- and four-byte quantities in the SMART data structures are byte-swapped (relative to the ATA specification). Enabling this option tells smartd to evaluate these quantities in byte-reversed order. Some signs that your disk needs this option are (1) no self-test log printed, even though you have run self-tests; (2) very large numbers of ATA errors reported in the ATA error log; (3) strange and impossible values for the ATA error log timestamps.
samsung2 - In some Samsung disks the number of ATA errors reported is byte swapped. Enabling this option tells smartd to evaluate this quantity in byte-reversed order.
samsung3 - Some Samsung disks (at least SP2514N with Firmware VF100-37) report a self-test still in progress with 0% remaining when the test was already completed. If this directive is specified, smartd will not skip the next scheduled self-test (see Directive '-s' above) in this case.
xerrorlba - This only affects smartctl.
[Please see the smartctl -F command-line option.]
The following arguments affect smartd warning output:
197,increasing - Raw Attribute number 197 (Current Pending Sector Count) is not reset if uncorrectable sectors are reallocated. This sets '-C 197+' if no other '-C' directive is specified.
198,increasing - Raw Attribute number 198 (Offline Uncorrectable Sector Count) is not reset if uncorrectable sectors are reallocated. This sets '-U 198+' if no other '-U' directive is specified.
use - use any presets that are available for this drive. This is the default.
ignore - do not use any presets for this drive.
show - show the presets listed for this drive in the database.
showall - show the presets that are available for all drives and then exit.
[Please see the smartctl -P command-line option.]
Note that -a is the default for ATA devices. If none of these other Directives is given, then -a is assumed.
If you are not sure which Directives to use, I suggest experimenting
for a few minutes with
to see what SMART functionality your disk(s) support(s). If you do
not like voluminous syslog messages, a good choice of
configuration file Directives might be:
-H -l selftest -l error -f.
If you want more frequent information, use: -a.
Example 1: This script is for use with '-m ADDRESS -M exec PATH'. It appends the output of smartctl -a to the output of the smartd email warning message and sends it to ADDRESS.
#! /bin/sh # Save the email message (STDIN) to a file: cat > /root/msg # Append the output of smartctl -a to the message: /usr/sbin/smartctl -a -d $SMART_DEVICETYPE \ $SMARTD_DEVICE >> /root/msg # Now email the message to the user at address ADD: /usr/bin/mail -s "$SMARTD_SUBJECT" $SMARTD_ADDRESS \ < /root/msg
Example 2: This script is for use with '-m <nomailer> -M exec PATH'. It warns all users about a disk problem, waits 30 seconds, and then powers down the machine.
#! /bin/sh # Warn all users of a problem wall <<EOF Problem detected with disk: $SMARTD_DEVICESTRING Warning message from smartd is: $SMARTD_MESSAGE Shutting down machine in 30 seconds... EOF # Wait half a minute sleep 30 # Power down the machine /sbin/shutdown -hf now
Some example scripts are distributed with the smartmontools package, in /usr/share/doc/smartmontools/examplescripts/.
Please note that these scripts typically run as root, so any files that they read/write should not be writable by ordinary users or reside in directories like /tmp that are writable by ordinary users and may expose your system to symlink attacks.
As previously described, if the scripts write to STDOUT or STDERR, this is interpreted as indicating that there was an internal error within the script, and a snippet of STDOUT/STDERR is logged to SYSLOG. The remainder is flushed.