Section: Environments, Tables, and Troff Macros (7)
Updated: 4 November 2014
Page Index


groff_char - groff glyph names  


This manual page lists the standard groff glyph names and the default input mapping, latin1. The glyphs in this document look different depending on which output device was chosen (with option -T for the man(1) program or the roff formatter). Glyphs not available for the device that is being used to print or view this manual page are marked with '(N/A)'.

In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for direct input and named entities for further glyphs. On ASCII platforms, input character codes in the range 0 to 127 (decimal) represent the usual 7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted as the corresponding characters in the latin1 (ISO-8859-1) code set by default. This mapping is contained in the file latin1.tmac and can be changed by loading a different input encoding. Note that some of the input characters are reserved by groff, either for internal use or for special input purposes. On EBCDIC platforms, only code page cp1047 is supported (which contains the same characters as latin1; the input encoding file is called cp1047.tmac). Again, some input characters are reserved for internal and special purposes.

All roff systems provide the concept of named glyphs. In traditional roff systems, only names of length 2 were used, while groff also provides support for longer names. It is strongly suggested that only named glyphs are used for all character representations outside of the printable 7-bit ASCII range.

Some of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of length 1) also produce single glyphs; these exist for historical reasons or are printable versions of syntactical characters. They include '\\', '\'', '\`', '\-', '\.', and '\e'; see groff(7).

In groff, all of these different types of characters and glyphs can be tested positively with the '.if c' conditional.  


In this section, the glyphs in groff are specified in tabular form. The meaning of the columns is as follows.
shows how the glyph is printed for the current device; although this can have quite a different shape on other devices, it always represents the same glyph.
specifies how the glyph is input either directly by a key on the keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.
applies to glyphs which can be input with a single character, and gives the ISO latin1 decimal code of that input character. Note that this code is equivalent to the lowest 256 Unicode characters, including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127.
gives the usual PostScript name of the glyph.
is the glyph name used in composite glyph names. The names in the Unicode column look like u0021 or u0041_0300. In groff, the corresponding Unicode characters can be constructed by adding a backslash and a pair of square brackets, for example \[u0021] or \[u0041_0300].

7-bit Character Codes 32-126

These are the basic glyphs having 7-bit ASCII code values assigned. They are identical to the printable characters of the character standards ISO-8859-1 (latin1) and Unicode (range Basic Latin). The glyph names used in composite glyph names are 'u0020' up to 'u007E'.

Note that input characters in the range 0-31 and character 127 are not printable characters. Most of them are invalid input characters for groff anyway, and the valid ones have special meaning. For EBCDIC, the printable characters are in the range 66-255.

Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).
Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).
Lower case letters a-z (print as themselves).

Most of the remaining characters not in the just described ranges print as themselves; the only exceptions are the following characters:

the ISO latin1 'Grave Accent' (code 96) prints as ', a left single quotation mark; the original character can be obtained with '\`'.
the ISO latin1 'Apostrophe' (code 39) prints as ', a right single quotation mark; the original character can be obtained with '\(aq'.
the ISO latin1 'Hyphen, Minus Sign' (code 45) prints as a hyphen; a minus sign can be obtained with '\-'.
the ISO latin1 'Tilde' (code 126) is reduced in size to be usable as a diacritic; a larger glyph can be obtained with '\(ti'.
the ISO latin1 'Circumflex Accent' (code 94) is reduced in size to be usable as a diacritic; a larger glyph can be obtained with '\(ha'.


333333exclamu0021exclamation mark (bang)
343434quotedblu0022double quote
353535numbersignu0023number sign
363636dollaru0024currency dollar sign
393939quoterightu0027right quote
404040parenleftu0028parentheses left
414141parenrightu0029parentheses right
464646periodu002Eperiod, dot
606060lessu003Cless than
626262greateru003Egreater than
636363questionu003Fquestion mark
919191bracketleftu005Bsquare bracket left
939393bracketrightu005Dsquare bracket right
949494circumflexu005Ecircumflex accent
969696quoteleftu0060quote left
2323123braceleftu007Bcurly brace left
2525125bracerightu007Dcurly brace right
2626126tildeu007Etilde accent

8-bit Character Codes 160 to 255

They are interpreted as printable characters according to the latin1 (ISO-8859-1) code set, being identical to the Unicode range Latin-1 Supplement.

Input characters in range 128-159 (on non-EBCDIC hosts) are not printable characters.

the ISO latin1 no-break space is mapped to '\~', the stretchable space character.
the soft hyphen control character. groff never uses this character for output (thus it is omitted in the table below); the input character 173 is mapped onto '\%'.

The remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255) are printable characters that print as themselves. Although they can be specified directly with the keyboard on systems with a latin1 code page, it is better to use their glyph names; see next section.


6161161exclamdownu00A1inverted exclamation mark
6262162centu00A2currency unit
6363163sterlingu00A3pound sterling
6464164currencyu00A4generic currency symbol
6565165yenu00A5Japanese currency symbol
6666166brokenbaru00A6broken bar
6767167sectionu00A7section sign
6868168dieresisu00A8dieresis (umlaut)
6969169copyrightu00A9copyright symbol
7070170ordfeminineu00AAfeminine ordinal (Spanish)
7171171guillemotleftu00ABleft guillemet [sic]
7272172logicalnotu00AClogical not
7474174registeredu00AEregistered mark symbol
7575175macronu00AFoverbar accent
7676176degreeu00B0degree sign
7777177plusminusu00B1plus-minus sign
7878178twosuperioru00B2superscript 2
7979179threesuperioru00B3superscript 3
8080180acuteu00B4acute accent
8181181muu00B5micro sign
8282182paragraphu00B6end of paragraphs marker
8383183periodcenteredu00B7centered period
8484184cedillau00B8cedilla accent
8585185onesuperioru00B9superscript 1
8686186ordmasculineu00BAmasculine ordinal (Spanish)
8787187guillemotrightu00BBright guillemet [sic]
8888188onequarteru00BC1/4 symbol
8989189onehalfu00BD1/2 symbol
9090190threequartersu00BE3/4 symbol
9191191questiondownu00BFinverted question mark
9292192Agraveu0041_0300A grave
9393193Aacuteu0041_0301A acute
9494194Acircumflexu0041_0302A circumflex
9595195Atildeu0041_0303A tilde
9696196Adieresisu0041_0308A dieresis (umlaut)
9797197Aringu0041_030AA ring
9898198AEu00C6A+E combined
9999199Ccedillau0043_0327C cedilla
0000200Egraveu0045_0300E grave
0101201Eacuteu0045_0301E acute
0202202Ecircumflexu0045_0302E circumflex
0303203Edieresisu0045_0308E dieresis (umlaut)
0404204Igraveu0049_0300I grave
0505205Iacuteu0049_0301I acute
0606206Icircumflexu0049_0302I circumflex
0707207Idieresisu0049_0308I dieresis
0808208Ethu00D0E th
0909209Ntildeu004E_0303N tilde
1010210Ograveu004F_0300O grave
1111211Oacuteu004F_0301O acute
1212212Ocircumflexu004F_0302O circumflex
1313213Otildeu004F_0303O tilde
1414214Odieresisu004F_0308O dieresis (umlaut)
1616216Oslashu00D8O slash
1717217Ugraveu0055_0300U grave
1818218Uacuteu0055_0301U acute
1919219Ucircumflexu0055_0302U circumflex
2020220Udieresisu0055_0308U dieresis (umlaut)
2121221Yacuteu0059_0301Y acute
2323223germandblsu00DFGerman double s (sharp s)
2424224agraveu0061_0300a grave
2525225aacuteu0061_0301a acute
2626226acircumflexu0061_0302a circumflex
2727227atildeu0061_0303a tilde
2828228adieresisu0061_0308a dieresis (umlaut)
2929229aringu0061_030Aa ring
3030230aeu00E6a+e combined
3131231ccedillau0063_0327c cedilla
3232232egraveu0065_0300e grave
3333233eacuteu0065_0301e acute
3434234ecircumflexu0065_0302e circumflex
3535235edieresisu0065_0308e dieresis (umlaut)
3636236igraveu0069_0300i grave
3737237iacuteu0069_0301i acute
3838238icircumflexu0069_0302i circumflex
3939239idieresisu0069_0308i dieresis (umlaut)
4040240ethu00F0e th
4141241ntildeu006E_0303n tilde
4242242ograveu006F_0300o grave
4343243oacuteu006F_0301o acute
4444244ocircumflexu006F_0302o circumflex
4545245otildeu006F_0303o tilde
4646246odieresisu006F_0308o dieresis (umlaut)
4848248oslashu00F8o slash
4949249ugraveu0075_0300u grave
5050250uacuteu0075_0301u acute
5151251ucircumflexu0075_0302u circumflex
5252252udieresisu0075_0308u dieresis (umlaut)
5353253yacuteu0079_0301y acute
5555255ydieresisu0079_0308y dieresis (umlaut)

Named Glyphs

Glyph names can be embedded into the document text by using escape sequences. groff(7) describes how these escape sequences look. Glyph names can consist of quite arbitrary characters from the ASCII or latin1 code set, not only alphanumeric characters. Here some examples:
A glyph having the 2-character name ch.
A glyph having the name char_name (having length 1, 2, 3, ...). Note that 'c' is not the same as '\[,c/]' (,c a single character): The latter is internally mapped to glyph name '\c'. By default, groff defines a single glyph name starting with a backslash, namely '\-', which can be either accessed as '\-' or '\[-]'.
\[,base_glyph composite_1 composite_2 .../]
A composite glyph; see below for a more detailed description.

In groff, each 8-bit input character can also referred to by the construct '\[char,n/]' where n is the decimal code of the character, a number between 0 and 255 without leading zeros (those entities are not glyph names). They are normally mapped onto glyphs using the .trin request.

Another special convention is the handling of glyphs with names directly derived from a Unicode code point; this is shown in the 'Unicode' column of the table below. In general, all glyphs not having a name as listed in this manual page can be accessed with the '\[u,XXXX/]' construct; please go to section 'Using Symbols' in the groff info manual for more details.

Moreover, new glyph names can be created by the .char request; see groff(7).

In the following, a plus sign in the 'Notes' column indicates that this particular glyph name appears in the PS version of the original troff documentation, CSTR 54.

Entries marked with '***' denote glyphs for mathematical purposes (mainly used for DVI output). Normally, such glyphs have metrics which make them unusable in normal text.


Ð\[-D]Ethu00D0uppercase eth
ð\[Sd]ethu00F0lowercase eth
Þ\[TP]Thornu00DEuppercase thorn
þ\[Tp]thornu00FElowercase thorn
ß\[ss]germandblsu00DFGerman double s (sharp s)

Ligatures and Other Latin Glyphs


ff\[ff]ffu0066_0066ff ligature +
fi\[fi]fiu0066_0069fi ligature +
fl\[fl]flu0066_006Cfl ligature +
ffi\[Fi]ffiu0066_0066_0069ffi ligature +
ffl\[Fl]fflu0066_0066_006Cffl ligature +
Ł\[/L]Lslashu0141L slash (Polish)
ł\[/l]lslashu0142l slash (Polish)
Ø\[/O]Oslashu00D8O slash (Scandinavian)
ø\[/o]oslashu00F8o slash (Scandinavian)
Æ\[AE]AEu00C6A+E combined
æ\[ae]aeu00E6a+e combined
Œ\[OE]OEu0152O+E combined
œ\[oe]oeu0153o+e combined
IJ\[IJ]IJu0132I+J combined (Dutch)
ij\[ij]iju0133i+j combined(Dutch)
ı\[.i]dotlessiu0131i without a dot (Turkish)
.j\[.j]dotlessju0237j without a dot

Accented Characters


Á\['A]Aacuteu0041_0301A acute
'C\['C]Cacuteu0043_0301C acute
É\['E]Eacuteu0045_0301E acute
Í\['I]Iacuteu0049_0301I acute
Ó\['O]Oacuteu004F_0301O acute
Ú\['U]Uacuteu0055_0301U acute
Ý\['Y]Yacuteu0059_0301Y acute
á\['a]aacuteu0061_0301a acute
'c\['c]cacuteu0063_0301c acute
é\['e]eacuteu0065_0301e acute
í\['i]iacuteu0069_0301i acute
ó\['o]oacuteu006F_0301o acute
ú\['u]uacuteu0075_0301u acute
ý\['y]yacuteu0079_0301y acute
Ä\[:A]Adieresisu0041_0308A dieresis (umlaut)
Ë\[:E]Edieresisu0045_0308E dieresis (umlaut)
Ï\[:I]Idieresisu0049_0308I dieresis (umlaut)
Ö\[:O]Odieresisu004F_0308O dieresis (umlaut)
Ü\[:U]Udieresisu0055_0308U dieresis (umlaut)
:Y\[:Y]Ydieresisu0059_0308Y dieresis (umlaut)
ä\[:a]adieresisu0061_0308a dieresis (umlaut)
ë\[:e]edieresisu0065_0308e dieresis (umlaut)
ï\[:i]idieresisu0069_0308i dieresis (umlaut)
ö\[:o]odieresisu006F_0308o dieresis (umlaut)
ü\[:u]udieresisu0075_0308u dieresis (umlaut)
ÿ\[:y]ydieresisu0079_0308y dieresis (umlaut)
Â\[^A]Acircumflexu0041_0302A circumflex
Ê\[^E]Ecircumflexu0045_0302E circumflex
Î\[^I]Icircumflexu0049_0302I circumflex
Ô\[^O]Ocircumflexu004F_0302O circumflex
Û\[^U]Ucircumflexu0055_0302U circumflex
â\[^a]acircumflexu0061_0302a circumflex
ê\[^e]ecircumflexu0065_0302e circumflex
î\[^i]icircumflexu0069_0302i circumflex
ô\[^o]ocircumflexu006F_0302o circumflex
û\[^u]ucircumflexu0075_0302u circumflex
À\[`A]Agraveu0041_0300A grave
È\[`E]Egraveu0045_0300E grave
Ì\[`I]Igraveu0049_0300I grave
Ò\[`O]Ograveu004F_0300O grave
Ù\[`U]Ugraveu0055_0300U grave
à\[`a]agraveu0061_0300a grave
è\[`e]egraveu0065_0300e grave
ì\[`i]igraveu0069_0300i grave
ò\[`o]ograveu006F_0300o grave
ù\[`u]ugraveu0075_0300u grave
Ã\[~A]Atildeu0041_0303A tilde
Ñ\[~N]Ntildeu004E_0303N tilde
Õ\[~O]Otildeu004F_0303O tilde
ã\[~a]atildeu0061_0303a tilde
ñ\[~n]ntildeu006E_0303n tilde
õ\[~o]otildeu006F_0303o tilde
vS\[vS]Scaronu0053_030CS caron
vs\[vs]scaronu0073_030Cs caron
vZ\[vZ]Zcaronu005A_030CZ caron
vz\[vz]zcaronu007A_030Cz caron
Ç\[,C]Ccedillau0043_0327C cedilla
ç\[,c]ccedillau0063_0327c cedilla
Å\[oA]Aringu0041_030AA ring
å\[oa]aringu0061_030Aa ring


The composite request is used to map most of the accents to non-spacing glyph names; the values given in parentheses are the original (spacing) ones.


a"\[a"]hungarumlautu030B (u02DD)Hungarian umlaut
a-\[a-]macronu0304 (u00AF)overbar accent
a.\[a.]dotaccentu0307 (u02D9)dot accent
a^\[a^]circumflexu0302 (u005E)circumflex accent
´\[aa]acuteu0301 (u00B4)acute accent
`\[ga]graveu0300 (u0060)grave accent
ab\[ab]breveu0306 (u02D8)breve accent
ac\[ac]cedillau0327 (u00B8)cedilla accent
ad\[ad]dieresisu0308 (u00A8)umlaut accent
ah\[ah]caronu030C (u02C7)caron accent
ao\[ao]ringu030A (u02DA)small circle, ring accent
~\[a~]tildeu0303 (u007E)tilde accent
ho\[ho]ogoneku0328 (u02DB)hook accent
ha\[ha]asciicircumu005E high circumflex, ASCII character, in mathematics the power sign
~\[ti]asciitildeu007E tilde in vertical middle, ASCII, in Unix-like the home directory



Bq\[Bq]quotedblbaseu201Elow double comma quote
bq\[bq]quotesinglbaseu201Alow single comma quote
"\[lq]quotedblleftu201Cleft double quote
"\[rq]quotedblrightu201Dright double quote
'\[oq]quoteleftu2018single open (left) quote
'\[cq]quoterightu2019single closing (right) quote
'\[aq]quotesingleu0027apostrophe quote (ASCII 39)
"\[dq]quotedblu0022double quote (ASCII 34)
«\[Fo]guillemotleftu00ABleft guillemet [sic]
»\[Fc]guillemotrightu00BBright guillemet [sic]
\[fo]guilsinglleftu2039 single left-pointing angle quotation mark
\[fc]guilsinglrightu203A single right-pointing angle quotation mark



¡\[r!]exclamdownu00A1inverted exclamation mark
¿\[r?]questiondownu00BFinverted question mark
---\[em]emdashu2014em-dash symbol
-\[en]endashu2013en-dash symbol
-\[hy]hyphenu2010hyphen symbol


The extensible bracket pieces are font-invariant glyphs. In classical troff only one glyph was available to vertically extend brackets, braces, and parentheses: 'bv'. We map it rather arbitrarily to u23AA.

Note that not all devices contain extensible bracket pieces which can be piled up with '\b' due to the restrictions of the escape's piling algorithm. A general solution to build brackets out of pieces is the following macro:

.\" Make a pile centered vertically 0.5em.\" above the baseline..\" The first argument is placed at the top..\" The pile is returned in string `pile'.eo .de pile-make . nr pile-wd 0 . nr pile-ht 0 . ds pile-args . . nr pile-# \n[.$] . while \n[pile-#] \{\ . nr pile-wd (\n[pile-wd] >? \w'\$[\n[pile-#]]') . nr pile-ht +(\n[rst] - \n[rsb]) . as pile-args \v'\n[rsb]u'\". as pile-args \Z'\$[\n[pile-#]]'\". as pile-args \v'-\n[rst]u'\". nr pile-# -1 . \} . . ds pile \v'(-0.5m + (\n[pile-ht]u / 2u))'\". as pile \*[pile-args]\". as pile \v'((\n[pile-ht]u / 2u) + 0.5m)'\". as pile \h'\n[pile-wd]u'\".. .ec

Another complication is the fact that some glyphs which represent bracket pieces in original troff can be used for other mathematical symbols also, for example 'lf' and 'rf' which provide the 'floor' operator. Other devices (most notably for DVI output) don't unify such glyphs. For this reason, the four glyphs 'lf', 'rf', o lc', and 'rc' are not unified with similarly looking bracket pieces. In groff, only glyphs with long names are guaranteed to pile up correctly for all devices (provided those glyphs exist).


[\[lB]bracketleftu005B left square bracket
]\[rB]bracketrightu005D right square bracket
{\[lC]braceleftu007B left curly brace
}\[rC]bracerightu007D right curly brace
<\[la]angleleftu27E8 left angle bracket
>\[ra]anglerightu27E9 right angle bracket

|\[bv]braceexu23AA curly brace vertical extension
ex\[braceex]braceexu23AA curly brace vertical extension

tp\[bracketlefttp]bracketlefttpu23A1 left square bracket top
bt\[bracketleftbt]bracketleftbtu23A3 left square bracket bottom
ex\[bracketleftex]bracketleftexu23A2 left square bracket extension
tp\[bracketrighttp]bracketrighttpu23A4 right square bracket top
bt\[bracketrightbt]bracketrightbtu23A6 right square bracket bottom
ex\[bracketrightex]bracketrightexu23A5 right square bracket extension

lt\[lt]bracelefttpu23A7 left curly brace top
tp\[bracelefttp]bracelefttpu23A7 left curly brace top
{\[lk]braceleftmidu23A8 left curly brace middle
id\[braceleftmid]braceleftmidu23A8 left curly brace middle
[\[lb]braceleftbtu23A9 left curly brace bottom
bt\[braceleftbt]braceleftbtu23A9 left curly brace bottom
ex\[braceleftex]braceleftexu23AA left curly brace extension
rt\[rt]bracerighttpu23AB right curly brace top
tp\[bracerighttp]bracerighttpu23AB right curly brace top
}\[rk]bracerightmidu23AC right curly brace middle
id\[bracerightmid]bracerightmidu23AC right curly brace middle
rb\[rb]bracerightbtu23AD right curly brace bottom
bt\[bracerightbt]bracerightbtu23AD right curly brace bottom
ex\[bracerightex]bracerightexu23AA right curly brace extension
tp\[parenlefttp]parenlefttpu239B left parenthesis top
bt\[parenleftbt]parenleftbtu239D left parenthesis bottom
ex\[parenleftex]parenleftexu239C left parenthesis extension
tp\[parenrighttp]parenrighttpu239E right parenthesis top
bt\[parenrightbt]parenrightbtu23A0 right parenthesis bottoom
ex\[parenrightex]parenrightexu239F right parenthesis extension



\[<-]arrowleftu2190horizontal arrow left
\[->]arrowrightu2192horizontal arrow right
\[<>]arrowbothu2194 horizontal arrow in both directions
\[da]arrowdownu2193vertical arrow down
\[ua]arrowupu2191vertical arrow up
va\[va]arrowupdnu2195 vertical arrow in both directions
\[lA]arrowdblleftu21D0horizontal double arrow left
\[rA]arrowdblrightu21D2horizontal double arrow right
\[hA]arrowdblbothu21D4 horizontal double arrow in both directions
\[dA]arrowdbldownu21D3vertical double arrow down
\[uA]arrowdblupu21D1vertical double arrow up
vA\[vA]uni21D5u21D5 vertical double arrow in both directions
an\[an]arrowhorizexu23AFhorizontal arrow extension


The font-invariant glyphs 'br', 'ul', and 'rn' form corners; they can be used to build boxes. Note that both the PostScript and the Unicode-derived names of these three glyphs are just rough approximations.

'rn' also serves in classical troff as the horizontal extension of the square root sign.

'ru' is a font-invariant glyph, namely a rule of length 0.5m.


|\[br]SF110000u2502box rule
_\[ru]------baseline rule
|\[bb]brokenbaru00A6broken bar
/\[sl]slashu002Fslash, solidus
\\[rs]backslashu005Creverse slash, reverse solidus

Use '\[radicalex]', not '\[overline]', for continuation of square root.

Text markers


=\[dd]daggerdblu2021double dagger sign
\[lz]lozengeu25CAlozenge, diamond, pound key
\[sq]uni25A1u25A1white square
\[ps]paragraphu00B6end of paragraphs marker
§\[sc]sectionu00A7section sign
\[lh]uni261Cu261Chand pointing left
\[rh]a14u261Ehand pointing right
#\[sh]numbersignu0023number sign
\[CR]carriagereturnu21B5carriage return
OK\[OK]a19u2713check mark, tick

Legal Symbols


©\[co]copyrightu00A9copyright sign
®\[rg]registeredu00AEregistered mark
\[tm]trademarku2122trademark symbol
bs\[bs]------AT&T Bell Labs logo +

The Bell Labs logo is not supported in groff.

Currency symbols


\[eu]---u20ACofficial Euro symbol
\[Eu]Eurou20ACfont-specific Euro glyph variant
¥\[Ye]yenu00A5Japanese Yen
£\[Po]sterlingu00A3pound sterling (British)
¤\[Cs]currencyu00A4Scandinavian currency sign
Fn\[Fn]florinu0192Dutch currency sign



\[%0]perthousandu2030per thousand, per mille sign
´\[fm]minuteu2032arc minute sign
sd\[sd]secondu2033acr second sign
µ\[mc]muu00B5mu, micro sign
Of\[Of]ordfeminineu00AAfeminine ordinal (Spanish)
Om\[Om]ordmasculineu00BAmasculine ordinal (Spanish)

Logical Symbols


AN\[AN]logicalandu2227logical and
OR\[OR]logicaloru2228logical or
¬\[no]logicalnotu00AClogical not
no\[tno]logicalnotu00ACtext variant of 'no'
te\[te]existentialu2203there exists
fa\[fa]universalu2200for all
st\[st]suchthatu220Bsucht that
|\[or]baru007C bitwise OR operator (as used in C)

Mathematical Symbols


½\[12]onehalfu00BD1/2 symbol
¼\[14]onequarteru00BC1/4 symbol
¾\[34]threequartersu00BE3/4 symbol
18\[18]oneeighthu215B1/8 symbol
38\[38]threeeighthsu215C3/8 symbol
58\[58]fiveeighthsu215D5/8 symbol
78\[78]seveneighthsu215E7/8 symbol
¹\[S1]onesuperioru00B9superscript 1
²\[S2]twosuperioru00B2superscript 2
³\[S3]threesuperioru00B3superscript 3

+\[pl]plusu002Bplus in special font
-\[mi]minusu2212minus in special font
+-\[t+-]plusminusu00B1text variant of \[+-]
pc\[pc]periodcenteredu00B7period centered
md\[md]dotmathu22C5multiplication dot
×\[mu]multiplyu00D7multiply sign
mu\[tmu]multiplyu00D7text variant of \[mu]
\[c*]circlemultiplyu2297multiply sign in circle
\[c+]circleplusu2295plus sign in circle
÷\[di]divideu00F7division sign
di\[tdi]divideu00F7text variant of \[di]
\[f/]fractionu2044bar for fractions
*\[**]asteriskmathu2217mathematical asterisk

\[<=]lessequalu2264less or equal
\[>=]greaterequalu2265greater or equal
<<\[<<]uni226Au226Amuch less
>>\[>>]uni226Bu226Bmuch greater
=\[eq]equalu003Dequals in special font
\[!=]notequalu003D_0338not equal
ne\[ne]uni2262u2261_0338not equivalent
\[=~]congruentu2245 congruent, approx. equal
|=\[|=]uni2243u2243asymptot. equal to
~~\[~~]approxequalu2248almost equal to
~=\[~=]approxequalu2248almost equal to

Ø\[es]emptysetu2205empty set
mo\[mo]elementu2208element of a set
nm\[nm]notelementu2208_0338not element of set
sb\[sb]propersubsetu2282proper subset
nb\[nb]notsubsetu2282_0338not supset
sp\[sp]propersupersetu2283proper superset
nc\[nc]uni2285u2283_0338not superset
ib\[ib]reflexsubsetu2286subset or equal
ip\[ip]reflexsupersetu2287superset or equal
ca\[ca]intersectionu2229intersection, cap
cu\[cu]unionu222Aunion, cup

sr\[sr]radicalu221Asquare root
rt\[sqrt]radicalu221Asquare root
ex\[radicalex]radicalex--- square root continuation
ex\[sqrtex]radicalex--- square root continuation

\[lc]uni2308u2308left ceiling
¯|\[rc]uni2309u2309right ceiling
|_\[lf]uni230Au230Aleft floor
_|\[rf]uni230Bu230Bright floor

Im\[Im]Ifrakturu2111Gothic I, imaginary
Re\[Re]Rfrakturu211CGothic R, real
d\[pd]partialdiffu2202 partial differentiation
-h\[-h]uni210Fu210F Planck constant / 2pi (h-bar)
ar\[hbar]uni210Fu210F Planck constant / 2pi (h-bar)

Greek glyphs

These glyphs are intended for technical use, not for real Greek; normally, the uppercase letters have upright shape, and the lowercase ones are slanted. There is a problem with the mapping of letter phi to Unicode. Prior to Unicode version 3.0, the difference between U+03C6, GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI, and U+03D5, GREEK PHI SYMBOL, was not clearly described; only the glyph shapes in the Unicode book could be used as a reference. Starting with Unicode 3.0, the reference glyphs have been exchanged and described verbally also: In mathematical context, U+03D5 is the stroked variant and U+03C6 the curly glyph. Unfortunately, most font vendors didn't update their fonts to this (incompatible) change in Unicode. At the time of this writing (January 2006), it is not clear yet whether the Adobe Glyph Names 'phi' and 'phi1' also change its meaning if used for mathematics, thus compatibility problems are likely to happen - being conservative, groff currently assumes that 'phi' in a PostScript symbol font is the stroked version.

In groff, symbol '\[*f]' always denotes the stroked version of phi, and '\[+f]' the curly variant.


s\[ts]sigma1u03C2terminal sigma
φ\[*f]phiu03D5phi oked glyph)
+h\[+h]theta1u03D1variant theta
+f\[+f]phi1u03C6variant phi (curly shape)
+p\[+p]omega1u03D6variant pi, looking like omega
+e\[+e]uni03F5u03F5variant epsilon

Card symbols


CL\[CL]clubu2663black club suit
SP\[SP]spadeu2660black spade suit
HE\[HE]heartu2665black heart suit
61\[u2661]uni2661u2661white heart suit
DI\[DI]diamondu2666black diamond suit
62\[u2662]uni2662u2662white diamond suit


the GNU roff formatter
a short reference of the groff formatting language

An extension to the troff character set for Europe, E.G. Keizer, K.J. Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

The Unicode Standard  


Copyright © 1989-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

This file is part of groff (GNU roff), which is a free software project.

You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see GPL2  


This document was written by James Clark with additions by Werner Lemberg and Bernd Warken This document was revised to use real tables by Eric S. Raymond



7-bit Character Codes 32-126
8-bit Character Codes 160 to 255
Named Glyphs