Section: Maintenance Commands (8)
Mac OS X
- HFS file system consistency check
[-n | y | r
utility verifies and repairs standard HFS and HFS+ file systems.
The first form of
quickly checks the specified file systems to determine whether
they were cleanly unmounted.
The second form of
preens the specified file systems.
It is normally started by
during automatic reboot, when a HFS file system is detected.
When preening file systems,
will fix common inconsistencies for file systems that were not
If more serious problems are found,
does not try to fix them, indicates that it was not
successful, and exits.
The third form of
checks the specified file systems and tries to repair all
If no options are specified
will always check and attempt to fix the specified file systems.
The options are as follows:
- -c size
of the cache used by
can result in better performance but can result in deadlock when
option. Size can be specified as a decimal, octal, or
hexadecimal number. If the number ends with a ``k'', ``m'',
or ``g'', the number is multiplied by 1024 (1K), 1048576 (1M),
or 1073741824 (1G), respectively.
Display debugging information.
This option may provide useful information when
cannot repair a damaged file system.
- -D flags
Print extra debugging information. The
are a bitmap that control which kind of debug information is printed.
The following values are currently implemented:
Extended attributes related messages
Overlapped extents related messages
- -b size
Specify the size, in bytes, of the physical blocks used by the
- -B path
Print the files containing the physical blocks listed in the file
The file should contain one or more decimal, octal (with leading 0) or
hexadecimal (with leading 0x) numbers separated by white space. The physical
block numbers are relative to the start of the partition, so if you
have block numbers relative to the start of the device, you will have to
subtract the block number of the start of the partition. The size of a
physical block is given with the
option; the default is 512 bytes per block.
When used with the
to check `clean' file systems, otherwise it means force
to check and repair journaled HFS+ file systems.
to generate its output strings in GUI format.
This option is used when another application with a graphical user interface
(like Mac OS X Disk Utility) is invoking the
to generate its output strings in XML (plist) format. This option
Lock down the file system and perform a test-only check.
This makes it possible to check a file system that is currently mounted,
although no repairs can be made.
- -m mode
Mode is an octal number that will be used to set the permissions for the
lost+found directory when it is created.
The lost+found directory is only created when a volume is repaired and orphaned
files or directories are detected.
places orphaned files and directories into the lost+found directory (located
at the root of the volume).
The default mode is 01777.
Preen the specified file systems.
to quickly check whether the volume was unmounted cleanly.
If the volume was unmounted cleanly, then the exit status is 0.
If the volume was not unmounted cleanly, then the exit status will be non-zero.
In either case, a message is printed to standard output describing whether the
volume was clean or dirty.
Always attempt to repair any damage that is found.
Never attempt to repair any damage that is found.
to exit (with a value of 47) if it encounters any
major errors. A ``major error'' is considered one which
would impact using the volume in normal usage; an inconsistency
which would not impact such use is considered ``minor'' for this
option. Only valid with the
- -R flags
Rebuilds the requested btree. The following flags are supported:
Extents overflow btree
Rebuilding a btree will only
work if there is enough free space on the file system for the new btree
file, and if
is able to traverse each of the nodes in the requested btree successfully.
Rebuilding btrees is not supported on HFS Standard volumes.
Rebuild the catalog btree. This is synonymous with
Because of inconsistencies between the block device and the buffer cache,
the raw device should always be used.
indicates some status by exit value. The current list of exit status results
No errors found, or successfully repaired.
A quick-check (the
option) found a dirty filesystem; no repairs were made.
During boot, the root filesystem was found to be dirty; repairs were
made, and the filesystem was remounted. The system should be rebooted.
A corrupt filesystem was found during a check, or repairs did not succeed.
A major error was found with
is not able to fix some inconsistencies that it detects.
command appeared in Mac OS X Server 1.0 .